We study fermionic atoms of three different internal quantum states (colors) in an optical lattice, which are interacting through attractive on site interactions, . Using a variational calculation for equal color densities and small couplings, , a color superfluid state emerges with a tendency to domain formation. For , triplets of atoms with different colors form singlet fermions (trions). These phases are the analogies of the color superconducting and baryonic phases in QCD. In ultracold fermions, this transition is found to be of second order. Our results demonstrate that quantum simulations with ultracold gases may shed light on outstanding problems in quantum field theory.
- Received 5 July 2006
©2007 American Physical Society