Kibble-Zurek Scaling and its Breakdown for Spontaneous Generation of Josephson Vortices in Bose-Einstein Condensates

Shih-Wei Su, Shih-Chuan Gou, Ashton Bradley, Oleksandr Fialko, and Joachim Brand
Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 215302 – Published 23 May 2013

Abstract

Atomic Bose-Einstein condensates confined to a dual-ring trap support Josephson vortices as topologically stable defects in the relative phase. We propose a test of the scaling laws for defect formation by quenching a Bose gas to degeneracy in this geometry. Stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii simulations reveal a 1/4 power-law scaling of defect number with quench time for fast quenches, consistent with the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. Slow quenches show stronger quench-time dependence that is explained by the stability properties of Josephson vortices, revealing the boundary of the Kibble-Zurek regime. Interference of the two atomic fields enables clear long-time measurement of stable defects and a direct test of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism in Bose-Einstein condensation.

  • Received 13 February 2013

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.215302

© 2013 American Physical Society

Authors & Affiliations

Shih-Wei Su1, Shih-Chuan Gou2, Ashton Bradley3, Oleksandr Fialko4, and Joachim Brand4

  • 1Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan
  • 2Department of Physics and Graduate Institute of Photonics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 50058, Taiwan
  • 3Jack Dodd Centre for Quantum Technology, Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
  • 4Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University (Albany Campus), Auckland 0745, New Zealand

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Vol. 110, Iss. 21 — 24 May 2013

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