Since graphene has no band gap, photoluminescence is not expected from relaxed charge carriers. We have, however, observed significant light emission from graphene under excitation by ultrashort (30-fs) laser pulses. Light emission was found to occur across the visible spectral range (1.7–3.5 eV), with emitted photon energies exceeding that of the excitation laser (1.5 eV). The emission exhibits a nonlinear dependence on the laser fluence. In two-pulse correlation measurements, a dominant relaxation time of tens of femtoseconds is observed. A two-temperature model describing the electrons and their interaction with strongly coupled optical phonons can account for the experimental observations.
- Received 27 March 2010
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