We investigated the stress-strain behavior of sand with and without small amounts of liquid under steady and oscillatory shear. Since dry sand has a lower shear modulus, one would expect it to deform more easily. Using a new technique to quasistatically push the sand through a tube with an enforced parabolic (Poiseuille-like) profile, we minimize the effect of avalanches and shear localization. We observe that the resistance against deformation of the wet (partially saturated) sand is much smaller than that of the dry sand, and that the latter dissipates more energy under flow. This is also observed in large-amplitude oscillatory shear measurements using a rotational rheometer, showing that the effect is robust and holds for different types of flow.
- Received 13 March 2012
©2012 American Physical Society