1996 PACS

A summary of changes made to the 1996 PACS is also available.

1996 PACS, 00. - 09.

00. SUMMARY OF PACS SCHEME
01. Communication, education, history, and philosophy
02. Mathematical methods in physics
03. Classical and quantum physics: mechanics and fields
04. General relativity and gravitation
05. Statistical physics and thermodynamics
06. Metrology, measurements, and laboratory procedures
07. Specific instrumentation and techniques of general use in physics
10. THE PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS
11. General theory of fields and particles
12. Specific theories and interaction models; particle systematics
13. Specific reactions and phenomenology
14. Properties of specific particles
20. NUCLEAR PHYSICS
21. Nuclear structure
23. Radioactive decay and in-beam spectroscopy
24. Nuclear reactions: general
25. Nuclear reactions: specific reactions
27. Properties of specific nuclei listed by mass ranges
28. Nuclear engineering and nuclear power studies
29. Experimental methods and instrumentation for elementary-particle and nuclear physics
30. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS
31. Electronic structure of atoms and molecules: theory
32. Atomic spectra and interactions with photons
33. Molecular spectra and interactions of molecules with photons
34. Atomic and molecular collision processes and interactions
35. Experimentally derived information on atoms and molecules; instrumentation and techniques
36. Studies of special atoms and molecules
40. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS)
41. Electromagnetism; electron and ion optics
42. Optics
43. Acoustics
44. Heat transfer, thermal and thermodynamic processes
46. Classical mechanics
47. Fluid dynamics
50. FLUIDS, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES
51. Kinetic and transport theory of fluids; physical properties of gases
52. The physics of plasmas and electric discharges
60. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES
61. Structure of solids and liquids; crystallography
62. Mechanical and acoustical properties of condensed matter
63. Lattice dynamics
64. Equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions
65. Thermal properties of condensed matter
66. Transport properties of condensed matter (nonelectronic)
67. Quantum fluids and solids; liquid and solid helium
68. Surfaces and interfaces; thin films and whiskers (structure and nonelectronic properties)
70. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES
71. Electron states
72. Electronic transport in condensed matter
73. Electronic structure and electrical properties of surfaces, interfaces, and thin films
74. Superconductivity
75. Magnetic properties and materials
76. Magnetic resonances and relaxations in condensed matter, Mossbauer effect
77. Dielectrics, piezoelectrics, and ferroelectrics and their properties
78. Optical properties and condensed-matter spectroscopy and other interactions of matter with particles and radiation
79. Electron and ion emission by liquids and solids; impact phenomena
80. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
81. Materials science
82. Physical chemistry
83. Rheology
84. Electromagnetic technology
85. Electrical and magnetic devices
87. Biophysics and medical physics
89. Other areas of research of general interest to physicists
90. GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, AND ASTROPHYSICS
91. Solid Earth physics
92. Hydrospheric and atmospheric geophysics
93. Geophysical observations, instrumentation, and techniques
94. Aeronomy and magnetospheric physics
95. Fundamental astronomy and astrophysics; instrumentation, techniques and astronomical observations
96. Solar System
97. Stars
98. Stellar systems; galactic and extragalactic objects and systems; the Universe

01. Communication, Education, History, and Philosophy
01.10.-m Announcements, news, and organizational activities
01.10.Cr Announcements, news, and awards
01.10.Fv Conferences, lectures, and institutes
01.10.Hx Physics organizational activities
01.30.-y Physics literature and publications
01.30.Bb Publications of lectures (advanced institutes, summer schools, etc.)
01.30.Cc Conference proceedings
01.30.Ee Monographs and collections
01.30.Kj Handbooks, dictionaries, tables, and data compilations
01.30.Mm Textbooks for graduates and researchers
01.30.Pp Textbooks for undergraduates
01.30.Rr Surveys and tutorial papers; resource letters
01.30.Tt Bibliographies
01.40.-d Education
01.40.Di Course design and evaluation
01.40.Ej Science in elementary and secondary school
01.40.Gm Curricula; teaching methods, strategies, and evaluation
01.40.Jp Teacher training
01.50.-i Educational aids
01.50.Fr Audio and visual aids, films
01.50.Ht Instructional computer use
01.50.Kw Testing theory and techniques
01.50.My Demonstration experiments and apparatus
01.50.Pa Laboratory experiments and apparatus
01.50.Qb Laboratory course design, organization, and evaluation
01.50.Te Buildings and facilities
01.50.Wg Physics of toys
01.52.+r National and international laboratory facilities
01.55.+b General physics
01.60.+q Biographical, historical, and personal notes
01.65.+g History of science
01.70.+w Philosophy of science
01.75.+m Science and society
01.80.+b Physics of sports
01.90.+g Other topics of general interest
02. Mathematical Methods in Physics
02.10.-v Logic, set theory, and algebra
02.10.By Logic and foundations
02.10.Cz Set theory
02.10.Eb Combinatorics
02.10.Gd Order, lattices, and ordered algebraic structures
02.10.Jf General mathematical systems
02.10.Lh Number theory
02.10.Nj Algebraic number theory, field theory, and polynomials
02.10.Pk Commutative rings and algebras
02.10.Rn Algebraic geometry
02.10.Sp Linear and multilinear algebra; matrix theory (finite and infinite)
02.10.Tq Associative rings and algebras
02.10.Vr Nonassociative rings and algebras
02.10.Ws Category theory and homological algebra
02.20.-a Group theory (for algebraic methods in quantum mechanics, see 03.65.F; for symmetries in elementary particle physics, see 11.30)
02.20.Df Finite groups
02.20.Fh Infinite groups
02.20.Hj Classical linear algebraic groups
02.20.Km Abelian groups
02.20.Mp Semigroups
02.20.Nq Topological groups, general
02.20.Qs General properties, structure, and representation of Lie groups
02.20.Rt Discrete subgroups of Lie groups
02.20.Sv Lie algebras of Lie groups
02.20.Tw Infinite-dimensional Lie groups
02.30.-f Function theory, analysis
02.30.Bi Real functions
02.30.Cj Measure and integration
02.30.Dk Functions of a complex variable
02.30.Em Potential theory
02.30.Fn Several complex variables and analytic spaces
02.30.Gp Special functions
02.30.Hq Ordinary differential equations
02.30.Jr Partial differential equations
02.30.Ks Delay and functional equations
02.30.Lt Sequences, series, and summability
02.30.Mv Approximations and expansions
02.30.Nw Fourier analysis
02.30.Px Abstract harmonic analysis
02.30.Qy Integral transforms and operational calculus
02.30.Rz Integral equations
02.30.Sa Functional analysis
02.30.Tb Operator theory
02.30.Wd Calculus of variations and optimal control
02.40.-k Geometry, differential geometry, and topology (see also 04 Relativity and gravitation)
02.40.Dr Euclidean and projective geometries
02.40.Ft Convex sets and geometric inequalities
02.40.Hw Classical differential geometry
02.40.Ky Riemannian geometries
02.40.Ma Global differential geometry
02.40.Pc General topology
02.40.Re Algebraic topology
02.40.Sf Manifolds and cell complexes
02.40.Vh Global analysis and analysis on manifolds
02.50.-r Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics (see also 05 Statistical physics)
02.50.Cw Probability theory
02.50.Ey Stochastic processes
02.50.Fz Stochastic analysis
02.50.Ga Markov processes
02.50.Hb Queuing theory
02.50.Kd Foundations of statistics; sufficiency
02.50.Le Decision theory and game theory
02.50.Ng Distribution theory and Monte Carlo studies
02.50.Ph Parametric inference
02.50.Rj Nonparametric inference
02.50.Sk Multivariate analysis
02.50.Vn Linear inference
02.50.Wp Inference from stochastic processes
02.60.-x Numerical approximation and analysis
02.60.Cb Numerical simulation; solution of equations
02.60.Dc Numerical linear algebra
02.60.Ed Interpolation; curve fitting
02.60.Gf Algorithms for functional approximation
02.60.Jh Numerical differentiation and integration
02.60.Lj Ordinary and partial differential equations; boundary value problems
02.60.Nm Integral and integrodifferential equations
02.60.Pn Numerical optimization
02.70.-c Computational techniques
02.70.Bf Finite-difference methods
02.70.Dh Finite-element and Galerkin methods
02.70.Fj Finite-volume methods
02.70.Hm Spectral methods
02.70.Jn Collocation methods
02.70.Lq Monte Carlo and statistical methods
02.70.Ns Molecular dynamics and particle methods
02.70.Pt Boundary-integral methods
02.70.Rw Other computational methods
02.90.+p Other topics in mathematical methods in physics
03. Classical and Quantum Physics: Mechanics and Fields
03.20.+i Classical mechanics of discrete systems: general mathematical aspects (for applied aspects of classical mechanics of discrete systems, see 46.10; for celestial mechanics, see 95.10.C)
03.30.+p Special relativity
03.40.-t Classical mechanics of continuous media: general mathematical aspects
03.40.Dz Mathematical theory of elasticity (see also 83.10 Continuum mechanics, 46.30 Structural mechanics of shells, plates, and beams, 62.20.D Elasticity of solids)
03.40.Gc Fluid dynamics: general mathematical aspects (see also 47 Fluid dynamics)
03.40.Kf Waves and wave propagation: general mathematical aspects (see also 62.30 Mechanical and elastic waves, 43.20 General linear acoustics, 83.50.T, V-in rheology)
03.50.-z Classical field theory
03.50.De Maxwell theory: general mathematical aspects (for applied classical electrodynamics, see 41)
03.50.Kk Other special classical field theories
03.65.-w Quantum mechanics (see also 05.30 Quantum statistical mechanics)
03.65.Bz Foundations, theory of measurement, miscellaneous theories (including Aharonov-Bohm effect, Bell inequalities, Berry's phase)
03.65.Ca Formalism
03.65.Db Functional analytical methods
03.65.Fd Algebraic methods (see also 02.20 Group theory)
03.65.Ge Solutions of wave equations: bound states
03.65.Nk Nonrelativistic scattering theory (see also 03.80 General theory of scattering)
03.65.Pm Relativistic wave equations
03.65.Sq Semiclassical theories and applications
03.70.+k Theory of quantized fields (see also 11.10 Field theory)
03.75.-b Matter waves
03.75.Be Atom and neutron optics
03.75.Dg Atom and neutron interferometry
03.75.Fi Phase coherent atomic ensemble (Bose condensation)
03.80.+r General theory of scattering (see also 03.65.N Nonrelativisitic scattering theory, 11.55 S-matrix theory; analytic structure of amplitudes, and 11.80 Relativistic scattering theory)
04. General Relativity and Gravitation (for relativistic cosmology, see 98.80.H)
04.20.-q Classical general relativity (see also 02.40 Geometry and topology)
04.20.Cv Fundamental problems and general formalism
04.20.Dw Singularities and cosmic censorship
04.20.Ex Initial value problem, existence and uniqueness of solutions
04.20.Fy Canonical formalism, Lagrangians, and variational principles
04.20.Gz Spacetime topology, causal structure, spinor structure
04.20.Ha Asymptotic structure
04.20.Jb Exact solutions
04.25.-g Approximation methods; equations of motion
04.25.Dm Numerical relativity
04.25.Nx Post-Newtonian approximation; perturbation theory; related approximations
04.30.-w Gravitational waves: theory
04.30.Db Wave generation and sources
04.30.Nk Wave propagation and interactions
04.40.-b Self-gravitating systems; continuous media and classical fields in curved spacetime
04.40.Dg Relativistic stars: structure, stability, and oscillations (for relativistic astrophysics, see 95.30.S)
04.40.Nr Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes, spacetimes with fluids, radiation or classical fields
04.50.+h Gravity in more than four dimensions, Kaluza-Klein theory, unified field theories, alternative theories of gravity (see also 11.25.M Compactification and four-dimensional models)
04.60.-m Quantum gravity (see also 98.80.H Quantum cosmology)
04.60.Ds Canonical quantization
04.60.Gw Covariant and sum-over-histories quantization
04.60.Kz Lower dimensional models; minisuperspace models
04.60.Nc Lattice and discrete methods
04.62.+v Quantum field theory in curved spacetime
04.65.+e Supergravity (see also 12.60.J Supersymmetric models)
04.70.-s Physics of black holes (for astrophysics of black holes, see 97.60.L)
04.70.Bw Classical black holes
04.70.Dy Quantum aspects of black holes, evaporation, thermodynamics
04.80.-y Experimental studies of gravity
04.80.Cc Experimental tests of gravitational theories
04.80.Nn Gravitational wave detectors and experiments (see also 95.55.Y in Astronomical instrumentation)
04.90.+e Other topics in general relativity and gravitation
05. Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics (see also 02.50 Probability theroy, anstochastic processes, and statistics)
05.20.-y Statistical mechanics
05.20.Dd Kinetic theory
05.20.Gg Classical ensemble theory
05.30.-d Quantum statistical mechanics
05.30.Ch Quantum ensemble theory
05.30.Fk Fermion systems and electron gas
05.30.Jp Boson systems
05.40.+j Fluctuation phenomena, random processes, and Brownian motion
05.45.+b Theory and models of chaotic systems
05.50.+q Lattice theory and statistics; Ising problems (see also 64.60.C Order- disorder and statistical mechanics of model systems; 75.10.H Classical spin models)
05.60.+w Transport processes: theory
05.70.-a Thermodynamics (see also 64 Equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions, and 65 Thermal properties of condensed matter; for chemical thermodynamics, see 82.60)
05.70.Ce Thermodynamic functions and equations of state
05.70.Fh Phase transitions: general aspects
05.70.Jk Critical point phenomena
05.70.Ln Nonequilibrium thermodynamics, irreversible processes (see also 82.20.M Nonequilibrium kinetics, and 82.40.B Oscillations, chaos, and bifurcations in homogeneous and nonequilibrium reactors)
05.90.+m Other topics in statistical physics and thermodynamics
06. Metrology, Measurements, and Laboratory Procedures
06.20.-f Metrology
06.20.Dk Measurement and error theory
06.20.Fn Units and standards
06.20.Jr Determination of fundamental constants
06.30.-k Measurements common to several branches of physics and astronomy
06.30.Bp Spatial dimensions (e.g., position, lengths, volume, angles, displacements, including nanometer-scale displacements)
06.30.Dr Mass and density
06.30.Ft Time and frequency
06.30.Gv Velocity, acceleration, and rotation
06.60.-c Laboratory procedures
06.60.Ei Sample preparation (including design of sample holders)
06.60.Jn High-speed techniques (microsecond to femtosecond)
06.60.Mr Testing and inspecting procedures
06.60.Sx Positioning and alignment; manipulating, remote handling
06.60.Vz Workshop procedures (welding, machining, lubrication, bearings, etc.)
06.60.Wa Laboratory safety procedures
06.60.Yb Other laboratory procedures
06.90.+v Other topics in metrology, measurements, and laboratory procedures
07. Instruments, Apparatus, Branches of Physics and Astronomy (see also each subdiscipline for specialized instrumentation and techniques)
07.05.-t Computers in experimental physics
07.05.Bx Computer systems: hardware, operating systems, computer languages, and utilities
07.05.Dz Control systems
07.05.Fb Design of experiments
07.05.Hd Data acquisition: hardware and software
07.05.Kf Data analysis: algorithms and implementation; data management
07.05.Mh Neural networks, fuzzy logic, artificial intelligence
07.05.Pj Image processing: (see also 42.30.V in optics)
07.05.Rm Data presentation and visualization: algorithms and implementation
07.05.Tp Computer modeling and simulation
07.05.Wr Computer interfaces
07.05.Ys Other topics in computers in experimental physics
07.07.-a General equipment and techniques
07.07.Df Sensors (chemical, optical, electrical, movement, gas, etc.); remote sensing
07.07.Hj Display and recording equipment, oscilloscopes, TV cameras, etc.
07.07.Mp Transducers
07.07.Tw Servo and control equipment; robots
07.07.Vx Hygrometers
07.07.Yz Other equipment and techniques
07.10.-h Mechanical instruments, equipment, and techniques
07.10.Cm Micromechanical devices and systems: (see also 85.42 Nanotechnology)
07.10.Fq Vibration isolation
07.10.Lw Balance systems, tensile machines, etc.
07.10.Pz Instruments for strain, force, and torque
07.10.Yg Other mechanical instruments, equipment, and techniques (including pendulum, gyroscopes, centrifuges, etc.)
07.20.-n Thermal instruments, apparatus, and techniques
07.20.Dt Thermometry
07.20.Fw Calorimetry
07.20.Hy Furnaces; heaters
07.20.Ka High-temperature techniques and instrumentation; pyrometry
07.20.Mc Cryogenics, refrigerators; low-temperature techniques
07.20.Pe Heat engines; heat pumps
07.20.Ym Other thermal instruments and techniques
07.30.-t Vacuum apparatus and techniques (see also 47.45 Rarefied gas dynamics)
07.30.Bx Degasification, residual gas
07.30.Cy Vacuum pumps
07.30.Dz Vacuum gauges
07.30.Hd Vacuum testing methods; leak detectors
07.30.Kf Vacuum chambers, auxiliary apparatus, and materials
07.35.+k High-pressure apparatus and techniques; shock tubes; diamond anvil cells
07.50.-e Electrical and electronic components, instruments, and techniques
07.50.Ek Circuits and circuit components: (see also 85.20--in electrical and magnetic devices)
07.50.Hp Electrical noise and shielding, interference
07.50.Ls Electrometers
07.50.Qx Signal processing electronics
07.50.Yd Other electrical and electronic components, instruments, and techniques
07.55.-w Magnetic components, instruments and techniques
07.55.Db Generation of magnetic fields; magnets: (see also 85.70.N--in magnetic devices)
07.55.Ge Magnetometers for magnetic field measurements
07.55.Jg Magnetometers for susceptibility, magnetic moment, and magnetization measurements
07.55.Nk Magnetic shielding in instruments
07.55.Yv Other magnetic instruments and techniques
07.57.-c Infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave and radiowave instruments, equipment and techniques (for infrared and radio telescopes, see 95.55)
07.57.Hm Infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave, and radiowave sources
07.57.Kp Bolometer; infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave, and radiowave receivers and detectors (see also 85.60.G Photodetectors and infrared detectors)
07.57.Pt Submillimeter wave, microwave and radiowave spectrometers; magnetic resonance spectrometers, auxiliary equipment, and techniques
07.57.Ty Infrared spectrometers, auxiliary equipment, and techniques
07.57.Yb Other infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave, and radiowave instruments, equipment, and techniques
07.60.-j Optical instruments, equipment, and techniques
07.60.Dq Photometers, radiometers, and colorimeters
07.60.Fs Polarimeters and ellipsometers
07.60.Hv Refractometers and reflectometers
07.60.Ly Interferometers
07.60.Pb Conventional optical microscopes: (for near-field scanning optical microscopes, see 07.79.B)
07.60.Rd Visible and ultraviolet spectrometers
07.60.Vg Fiber-optic instruments (see also 42.81 Fiber optics)
07.60.Yi Other optical instruments, equipment and techniques
07.64.+z Acoustic instruments, equipment, and techniques: (see also Acoustic Appendix)
07.68.+m Photography, photographic instruments and techniques; xerography
07.75.+h Mass spectrometers and related techniques
07.77.-n Atomic, molecular, and charged-particle sources and detectors
07.77.Gx Atomic and molecular beam sources and detectors
07.77.Ka Charged-particle beam sources and detectors
07.78.+s Electron, positron, and ion microscopes, electron diffractometers, and related techniques
07.79.-v Scanning probe microscopes: components and techniques
07.79.Cz Scanning tunneling microscopes
07.79.Fc Near-field scanning optical microscopes
07.79.Lh Atomic force microscopes
07.79.Pk Magnetic force microscopes
07.79.Sp Friction force microscopes
07.81.+a Electron, ion spectrometers, and related techniques
07.85.-m X- and gamma-ray instruments and techniques (for x- and gamma-ray telescopes, see 95.55.K)
07.85.Fv X- and gamma-ray sources, mirrors, gratings, and detectors
07.85.Jy Diffractometers
07.85.Nc X- and gamma-ray spectrometers
07.85.Qe Synchrotron radiation instrumentation
07.85.Yk Other x-ray and gamma-ray instruments and techniques
07.87.+v Spaceborne and space research instruments, apparatus, and components (satellites, space vehicles, etc.)
07.88.+y Instruments for environmental pollution measurements
07.89.+b Environmental effects on instruments (e.g., radiation and pollution effects)
07.90.+c Other topics in instruments, apparatus, components, and techniques common to several branches of physics and astronomy

1996 PACS, 10. - 19.

10. THE PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS (for cosmic rays, see 96.40; for experimental methods and instrumentation, see 29)
11. General Theory of Fields and Particles (see also 03.65 Quantum
mechanics, 03.70 Theory of quantized fields, 03.80 General theory of
scattering)
11.10.-z Field theory (for gauge field theories, see 11.15)
11.10.Cd Axiomatic approach
11.10.Ef Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approach
11.10.Gh Renormalization
11.10.Hi Renormalization group evolution of parameters
11.10.Jj Asymptotic problems and properties
11.10.Kk Field theories in dimensions other than four (see also 04.50 Gravity
in more than four dimensions; 04.60.K Lower dimensional models in
quantum gravity)
11.10.Lm Nonlinear or nonlocal theories and models (see also 11.27 Extended
classical solution; cosmic strings, domain walls, texture)
11.10.St Bound and unstable states; Bethe-Salpeter equations
11.10.Wx Finite-temperature field theory
11.15.-q Gauge field theories
11.15.Bt General properties of perturbation theory
11.15.Ex Spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetries
11.15.Ha Lattice gauge theory (see also 12.38.G Lattice QCD calculations)
11.15.Kc Classical and semiclassical techniques
11.15.Me Strong-coupling expansions
11.15.Pg Expansions for large numbers of components (e.g., 1/N sub c expansions)
11.15.Tk Other nonperturbative techniques
11.25.-w Theory of fundamental strings
11.25.Db Properties of perturbation theory
11.25.Hf Conformal field theory, algebraic structures
11.25.Mj Compactification and four-dimensional models
11.25.Pm Noncritical string theory
11.25.Sq Nonperturbative techniques; string field theory
11.27.+d Extended classical solutions; cosmic strings, domain walls, texture
(see 98.80.C in cosmology)
11.30.-j Symmetry and conservation laws (see also 02.20 Group theory)
11.30.Cp Lorentz and Poincare invariance
11.30.Er Charge conjugation, parity, time reversal, and other discrete
symmetries
11.30.Fs Global symmetries (e.g., baryon number, lepton number)
11.30.Hv Flavor symmetries
11.30.Ly Other internal and higher symmetries
11.30.Na Nonlinear and dynamical symmetries (spectrum-generating symmetries)
11.30.Pb Supersymmetry (see also 12.60.J Supersymmetric models)
11.30.Qc Spontaneous and radiative symmetry breaking
11.30.Rd Chiral symmetries
11.40.-q Currents and their properties
11.40.Dw General theory of currents
11.40.Ex Formal properties of current algebras (see also 12.39.F Chiral
Lagrangians)
11.40.Ha Partially conserved axial-vector currents
11.55.-m S-matrix theory; analytic structure of amplitudes
11.55.Bq Analytic properties of S matrix
11.55.Ds Exact S matrices
11.55.Fv Dispersion relations
11.55.Hx Sum rules
11.55.Jy Regge formalism (see also 12.40.N in strong interactions)
11.80.-m Relativistic scattering theory (see also 03.80 General theory of
scattering)
11.80.Cr Kinematical properties (helicity and invariant amplitudes, kinematic
singularities, etc.)
11.80.Et Partial-wave analysis
11.80.Fv Approximations (eikonal approximation, variational principles, etc.)
11.80.Gw Multichannel scattering
11.80.Jy Many-body scattering and Faddeev equation
11.80.La Multiple scattering
11.90.+t Other topics in general field and particle theory
12. Specific Theories and Interaction Models; Particle Systematics
12.10.-g Unified field theories and models (see also 04.50-in general relativity and gravitation, 11.25.M Compactification and four- dimensional models)
12.10.Dm Unified theories and models of strong and electroweak interactions
12.10.Kt Unification of couplings; mass relations
12.15.-y Electroweak interactions
12.15.Ff Quark and lepton masses and mixing (see also 14.60.P Neutrino mass and mixing)
12.15.Hh Determination of Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements
12.15.Ji Applications of electroweak models to specific processes
12.15.Lk Electroweak radiative corrections (see also 13.40.K Electromagnetic corrections to strong- and weak-interaction processes)
12.15.Mm Neutral currents
12.20.-m Quantum electrodynamics
12.20.Ds Specific calculations
12.20.Fv Experimental tests
12.38.-t Quantum chromodynamics
12.38.Aw General properties of QCD (dynamics, confinement, etc.)
12.38.Bx Perturbative calculations
12.38.Cy Summation of perturbation theory
12.38.Gc Lattice QCD calculations (see also 11.15.H Lattice gauge theory)
12.38.Lg Other nonperturbative calculations
12.38.Mh Quark-gluon plasma
12.38.Qk Experimental tests
12.39.-x Phenomenological quark models
12.39.Ba Bag model
12.39.Dc Skyrmions
12.39.Fe Chiral Lagrangians
12.39.Hg Heavy quark effective theory
12.39.Jh Nonrelativistic quark model
12.39.Ki Relativistic quark model
12.39.Mk Glueball and nonstandard multi-quark/gluon states
12.39.Pn Potential models
12.40.-y Other models for strong interactions
12.40.Ee Statistical models
12.40.Nn Regge theory, duality, absorptive/optical models (see also 11.55.J Regge formalism)
12.40.Vv Vector-meson dominance
12.40.Yx Hadron mass models and calculations
12.60.-i Models beyond the standard model
12.60.Cn Extensions of electroweak gauge sector
12.60.Fr Extensions of electroweak Higgs sector
12.60.Jv Supersymmetric models (see also 04.65 Supergravity)
12.60.Nz Technicolor models
12.60.Rc Composite models
12.90.+b Miscellaneous theoretical ideas and models
13. Specific Reactions and Phenomenology
13.10.+q Weak and electromagnetic interactions of leptons (see also 13.35 Decays of leptons)
13.15.+g Neutrino interactions (for neutrino-lepton interactions, see 13.10)
13.20.-v Leptonic and semileptonic decays of mesons
13.20.Cz Decays of pi mesons
13.20.Eb Decays of K mesons
13.20.Fc Decays of charmed mesons
13.20.Gd Decays of J/psi, Upsilon, and other quarkonia
13.20.He Decays of bottom mesons
13.20.Jf Decays of other mesons
13.25.-k Hadronic decays of mesons
13.25.Cq Decays of pi mesons
13.25.Es Decays of K mesons
13.25.Ft Decays of charmed mesons
13.25.Gv Decays of J/psi, Upsilon, and other quarkonia
13.25.Hw Decays of bottom mesons
13.25.Jx Decays of other mesons
13.30.-a Decays of baryons
13.30.Ce Leptonic and semileptonic decays
13.30.Eg Hadronic decays
13.35.-r Decays of leptons
13.35.Bv Decays of muons
13.35.Dx Decays of taus
13.35.Hb Decays of heavy neutrinos
13.38.-b Decays of intermediate bosoms
13.38.Be Decays of W bosons
13.38.Dg Decays of Z bosons
13.40.-f Electromagnetic processes and properties (see also 13.10 Weak and electromagnetic interactions of leptons)
13.40.Dk Electromagnetic mass differences
13.40.Em Electric and magnetic moments
13.40.Gp Electromagnetic form factors
13.40.Hq Electromagnetic decays
13.40.Ks Electromagnetic corrections to strong- and weak-interaction processes
13.60.-r Photon and charged-lepton interactions with hadrons (for neutrino interactions, see 13.15)
13.60.Fz Elastic and Compton scattering
13.60.Hb Total and inclusive cross sections (including deep-inelastic processes)
13.60.Le Meson production
13.60.Rj Baryon production
13.65.+i Hadron production by electron-positron collisions
13.75.-n Hadron-induced low- and intermediate-energy reactions and scattering (energy <_ 10 GeV) (for higher energies, see 13.85)
13.75.Cs Nucleon-nucleon interactions (including antinucleons, deuterons, etc.) (for N-N interactions in nuclei, see 21.30)
13.75.Ev Hyperon-nucleon interactions
13.75.Gx Pion-baryon interactions
13.75.Jz Kaon-baryon interactions
13.75.Lb Meson-meson interactions
13.85.-t Hadron-induced high- and super-high-energy interactions (energy > 10 GeV) (for low energies, see 13.75)
13.85.Dz Elastic scattering
13.85.Fb Inelastic scattering: two-particle final states
13.85.Hd Inelastic scattering: many-particle final states
13.85.Lg Total cross sections
13.85.Ni Inclusive production with identified hadrons
13.85.Qk Inclusive production with identified leptons, photons, or other nonhadronic particles
13.85.Rm Limits on production of particles
13.85.Tp Cosmic-ray interactions (see also 96.40 Cosmic rays)
13.87.-a Jets in large-Q sup 2 scattering
13.87.Ce Production
13.87.Fh Fragmentation into hadrons
13.88.+e Polarization in interactions and scattering
13.90.+i Other topics in specific reactions and phenomenology of elementary particles
14. Properties of Specific Particles
14.20.-c Baryons (including antiparticles)
14.20.Dh Protons and neutrons
14.20.Gk Baryon resonances with S=0
14.20.Jn Hyperons
14.20.Lq Charmed baryons
14.20.Mr Bottom baryons
14.20.Pt Dibaryons
14.40.-n Mesons
14.40.Aq Pi, K, and eta mesons
14.40.Cs Other mesons with S=C=0, mass < 2.5 GeV
14.40.Ev Other strange mesons
14.40.Gx Mesons with S=C=B=0, mass > 2.5 GeV (including quarkonia)
14.40.Lb Charmed mesons
14.40.Nd Bottom mesons
14.60.-z Leptons
14.60.Cd Electrons (including positrons)
14.60.Ef Muons
14.60.Fg Taus
14.60.Hi Other charged heavy leptons
14.60.Lm Ordinary neutrinos (nu sub e, nu sub mu, nu sub tau)
14.60.Pq Neutrino mass and mixing (see also 12.15.F Quark and lepton masses and mixing)
14.60.St Non-standard-model neutrinos, right-handed neutrinos, etc.
14.65.-q Quarks
14.65.Bt Light quarks
14.65.Dw Charmed quarks
14.65.Fy Bottom quarks
14.65.Ha Top quarks
14.70.-e Gauge bosons
14.70.Bh Photons
14.70.Dj Gluons
14.70.Fm W bosons
14.70.Hp Z bosons
14.70.Pw Other gauge bosons
14.80.-j Other particles (including hypothetical)
14.80.Bn Standard-model Higgs bosons
14.80.Cp Non-standard-model Higgs bosons
14.80.Hv Magnetic monopoles
14.80.Ly Supersymmetric partners of known particles
14.80.Mz Axions and other Nambu-Goldstone bosons (Majorons, familons, etc.)

1996 PACS, 20. - 29.

20. NUCLEAR PHYSICS
21. Nuclear Structure
21.10.-k Properties of nuclei; nuclear energy levels (for properties of specific nuclei listed by mass ranges, see 27)
21.10.Dr Binding energies and masses
21.10.Ft Charge distribution
21.10.Gv Mass and neutron distributions
21.10.Hw Spin, parity, and isobaric spin
21.10.Jx Spectroscopic factors
21.10.Ky Electromagnetic moments
21.10.Ma Level density
21.10.Pc Single-particle levels and strength functions
21.10.Re Collective levels
21.10.Sf Coulomb energies
21.10.Tg Lifetimes
21.30.-x Nuclear forces (see also 13.75.C Nucleon-nucleon interactions)
21.30.Cb Nuclear forces in vacuum
21.30.Fe Forces in hadronic systems and effective interactions
21.45.+v Few-body systems
21.60.-n Nuclear-structure models and methods
21.60.Cs Shell model
21.60.Ev Collective models
21.60.Fw Models based on group theory
21.60.Gx Cluster models
21.60.Jz Hartree-Fock and random-phase approximations
21.60.Ka Monte Carlo models
21.65.+f Nuclear matter
21.80.+a Hypernuclei
21.90.+f Other topics in nuclear structure
23. Radioactive Decay and In-beam Spectroscopy (see also 82.55 Radiochemistry)
23.20.-g Electromagnetic transitions
23.20.En Angular distribution and correlation measurements
23.20.Gq Multipole mixing ratios
23.20.Js Multipole matrix elements
23.20.Lv Gamma transitions and level energies
23.20.Nx Internal conversion and extranuclear effects
23.20.Ra Internal pair production
23.40.-s beta decay; double beta decay; electron and muon capture
23.40.Bw Weak-interaction and lepton (including neutrino) aspects
23.40.Hc Relation with nuclear matrix elements and nuclear structure
23.50.+z Decay by proton emission
23.60.+e Alpha decay
23.70.+j Heavy-particle decay
23.90.+w Other topics in radioactive decay and in-beam spectroscopy
24. Nuclear Reactions: General
24.10.-i Nuclear-reaction models and methods
24.10.Cn Many-body theory
24.10.Eq Coupled-channel and distorted-wave models
24.10.Ht Optical and diffraction models
24.10.Jv Relativistic models
24.10.Lx Monte Carlo simulations (including hadron and parton cascades and string breaking models)
24.10.Nz Hydrodynamic models
24.10.Pa Thermal and statistical models
24.30.-v Resonance reactions
24.30.Cz Giant resonances
24.30.Gd Other resonances
24.50.+g Direct reactions
24.60.-k Statistical theory and fluctuations
24.60.Dr Statistical compound-nucleus reactions
24.60.Gv Statistical multistep direct reactions
24.60.Ky Fluctuation phenomena
24.60.Lz Chaos in nuclear systems
24.70.+s Polarization phenomena in reactions
24.75.+i General properties of fission
24.80.+y Nuclear tests of fundamental interactions and symmetries
24.85.+p Quarks, gluons, and QCD in nuclei and nuclear processes
24.90.+d Other topics in nuclear reactions: general
25. Nuclear Reactions: Specific Reactions
25.10.+s Nuclear reactions involving few-nucleon systems
25.20.-x Photonuclear reactions
25.20.Dc Photon absorption and scattering
25.20.Lj Photoproduction reactions
25.30.-c Lepton-induced reactions
25.30.Bf Elastic electron scattering
25.30.Dh Inelastic electron scattering to specific states
25.30.Fj Inelastic electron scattering to continuum
25.30.Hm Positron scattering
25.30.Mr Muon scattering (including the EMC effect)
25.30.Pt Neutrino scattering
25.30.Rw Electroproduction reactions
25.40.-h Nucleon-induced reactions (see also 28.20 Neutron physics)
25.40.Cm Elastic proton scattering
25.40.Dn Elastic neutron scattering
25.40.Ep Inelastic proton scattering
25.40.Fq Inelastic neutron scattering
25.40.Hs Transfer reactions
25.40.Kv Charge-exchange reactions
25.40.Lw Radiative capture
25.40.Ny Resonance reactions
25.40.Qa (p,pi) reactions
25.40.Sc Spallation reactions
25.40.Ve Other reactions above meson production thresholds (energies > 400 MeV)
25.43.+t Antiproton-induced reactions
25.45.-z Sup 2 H-induced reactions
25.45.De Elastic and inelastic scattering
25.45.Hi Transfer reactions
25.45.Kk Charge-exchange reactions
25.55.-e Sup 3 H-, sup 3 He-, and sup 4 He-induced reactions
25.55.Ci Elastic and inelastic scattering
25.55.Hp Transfer reactions
25.55.Kr Charge-exchange reactions
25.60.-t Reactions induced by unstable nuclei
25.60.Bx Elastic scattering
25.60.Dz Interaction and reaction cross sections
25.60.Gc Breakup and momentum distributions
25.60.Je Transfer reactions
25.60.Lg Charge-exchange reactions
25.60.Pj Fusion reactions
25.70.-z Low and intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions
25.70.Bc Elastic and quasielastic scattering
25.70.De Coulomb excitation
25.70.Ef Resonances
25.70.Gh Compound nucleus
25.70.Hi Transfer reactions
25.70.Jj Fusion and fusion-fission reactions
25.70.Kk Charge-exchange reactions
25.70.Lm Strongly damped collisions
25.70.Mn Projectile and target fragmentation
25.70.Pq Multifragment emission and correlations
25.75.-q Relativistic heavy-ion collisions (collisions induced by light ions studied to calibrate relativistic heavy ion collisions, should be classified under both 25.75 and the 13 or 25 category appropriate to the light ions)
25.75.Dw Particle and resonance production
25.75.Gz Particle correlations
25.75.Ld Collective flow
25.80.-e Meson- and hyperon-induced reactions
25.80.Dj Pion elastic scattering
25.80.Ek Pion inelastic scattering
25.80.Gn Pion charge-exchange reactions
25.80.Hp Pion-induced reactions
25.80.Ls Pion inclusive scattering and absorption
25.80.Nv Kaon-induced reactions
25.80.Pw Hyperon-induced reactions
25.85.-w Fission reactions
25.85.Ca Spontaneous fission
25.85.Ec Neutron-induced fission
25.85.Ge Charged-particle-induced fission
25.85.Jg Photofission
25.90.+k Other topics in nuclear reactions: specific reactions
26. Nuclear Astrophysics (see also 95.30 Fundamental aspects of astrophysics)
26.10.+a Energy generation
26.20.+f Hydrostatic stellar nucleosynthesis (see also 97.10.C Stellar structure, interiors, evolution, nucleosynthesis, ages)
26.30.+k Nucleosynthesis in novae, supernovae and other explosive environments
26.35.+c Big Bang nucleosynthesis (see also 98.80.F Origin and formation of the elements)
26.40.+r Cosmic ray nucleosynthesis
26.45.+h Elemental and isotopic abundances and evolution
26.50.+x Nuclear physics aspects of supernovae evolution
26.60.+c Nuclear matter aspects of neutron stars
26.65.+t Solar neutrinos
27. Properties of Specific Nuclei Listed by Mass Ranges (an additional heading must be chosen with these entries, where the given mass number limits are, to some degree, arbitrary)
27.10.+h A <_ 5
27.20.+n 6 <_ A <_ 19
27.30.+t 20 <_ A <_ 38
27.40.+z 39 <_ A <_ 58
27.50.+e 59 <_ A <_ 89
27.60.+j 90 <_ A <_ 149
27.70.+q 150 <_ A <_ 189
27.80.+w 190 <_ A <_ 219
27.90.+b 220 <_ A
28. Nuclear Engineering and Nuclear Power Studies
28.20.-v Neutron physics (see also 25.40 Nucleon-induced reactions)
28.20.Cz Neutron scattering
28.20.Fc Neutron absorption
28.20.Gd Neutron transport: diffusion and moderation
28.41.-i Fission reactors
28.41.Ak Theory, design, and computerized simulation
28.41.Bm Fuel elements, preparation, reloading, and reprocessing
28.41.Fr Reactor coolants, reactor cooling, and heat recovery
28.41.Kw Radioactive wastes, waste disposal
28.41.Mx Reactor control systems
28.41.Pa Moderators
28.41.Qb Structural and shielding materials
28.41.Rc Instrumentation
28.41.Te Protection systems, safety, radiation monitoring, accidents, and dismantling
28.50.-k Fission reactor types
28.50.Dr Research reactors
28.50.Ft Fast and breeder reactors
28.50.Hw Power and production reactors
28.50.Ky Propulsion reactors
28.50.Ma Auxiliary generators
28.50.Qd Other reactors
28.52.-s Fusion reactors (for fusion reactor types, see 52.55)
28.52.Av Theory, design, and computerized simulation
28.52.Cx Fueling, heating, and ignition
28.52.Fa Materials
28.52.Lf Components and instrumentation
28.52.Nh Safety
28.60.+s Isotope separation and enrichment
28.70.+y Nuclear explosions (see also 47.40 Compressional flows; shock and detonation phenomena, 87.50.N, P--in medical physics; 83.50.T--in rheology)
28.90.+i Other topics in nuclear engineering and nuclear power studies
29. Experimental Methods and Instrumentation for Elementary-particle and Nuclear Physics
29.17.+w Electrostatic, collective, and linear accelerators
29.20.-c Cyclic accelerators and storage rings
29.20.Dh Storage rings
29.20.Fj Betatrons
29.20.Hm Cyclotrons
29.20.Lq Synchrotrons
29.20.Mr Other cyclic accelerators
29.25.-t Particle sources and targets
29.25.Bx Electron sources
29.25.Dz Neutron sources
29.25.Lg Ion sources: polarized
29.25.Ni Ion sources: positive and negative
29.25.Pj Polarized and other targets
29.25.Rm Sources of radioactive nuclei
29.27.-a Beams in particle accelerators (for low energy charged-particle beams, see 41.75)
29.27.Ac Beam injection and extraction
29.27.Bd Beam dynamics; collective effects and instabilities
29.27.Eg Beam handling; beam transport
29.27.Fh Beam characteristics
29.27.Hj Polarized beams
29.30.-h Spectrometers and spectroscopic techniques
29.30.Aj Charged-particle spectrometers: electric and magnetic
29.30.Dn Electron spectroscopy
29.30.Ep Charged-particle spectroscopy
29.30.Hs Neutron spectroscopy
29.30.Kv X- and gamma-ray spectroscopy
29.30.Lw Nuclear orientation devices
29.40.-n Radiation detectors (for mass spectrometers, see 07.75)
29.40.Cs Gas-filled counters: ionization chambers, proportional, and avalanche counters
29.40.Gx Tracking and position-sensitive detectors
29.40.Ka Cherenkov detectors
29.40.Mc Scintillation detectors
29.40.Rg Nuclear emulsions
29.40.Vj Calorimeters
29.40.Wk Solid-state detectors
29.40.Ym Other detectors
29.50.+v Computer interfaces (for electronic circuits, see 84.30)
29.85.+c Computer data analysis
29.90.+r Other topics in elementary-particle and nuclear physics experimental

1996 PACS, 30. - 39.

30. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS (for physical chemistry, see 82)
31. Electronic Structure of Atoms, Molecules and Their Ions: theory
31.10.+z Theory of electronic structure, electronic transitions, and chemical binding
31.15.-p Calculations and mathematical techniques in atomic and molecular physics (excluding electron correlation calculations) (for computational techniques, see 02.70)
31.15.Ar Ab initio calculations
31.15.Bs Statistical model calculations (including Thomas-Fermi and Thomas-Fermi-Dirac models)
31.15.Ct Semi-empirical and empirical calculations (differential overlap Huckel, PPP methods, etc.)
31.15.Dv Coupled cluster theory
31.15.Ew Density-functional theory
31.15.Fx Finite-difference schemes
31.15.Gy Semiclassical methods
31.15.Hz Group theory
31.15.Ja Hyperspherical methods
31.15.Kb Path-integral methods
31.15.Lc Quasiparticle methods
31.15.Md Perturbation theory
31.15.Ne Self-consistent-field methods
31.15.Pf Variational techniques
31.15.Qg Molecular dynamics and other numerical methods
31.15.Rh Valence bond calculations
31.25.-v Electron correlation calculations for atoms and molecules
31.25.Eb Electron-correlation calculations for atoms and ions: ground state
31.25.Jf Electron-correlation calculations for atoms and ions: excited states
31.25.Nj Electron-correlation calculations for diatomic molecules
31.25.Qm Electron-correlation calculations for polyatomic molecules
31.30.-i Corrections to electronic structure
31.30.Gs Hyperfine interactions and isotope effects
31.30.Jv Relativistic and quantum electrodynamic effects in atoms and molecules
31.50.+w Excited states
31.70.-f Effects of atomic and molecular interactions on electronic structure (see also 34 Atomic and molecular collision processes and interactions)
31.70.Dk Environmental and solvent effects
31.70.Hq Time-dependent phenomena: excitation and relaxation processes, and reaction rates (for chemical kinetics aspects, see 82.20.R)
31.70.Ks Molecular solids
31.90.+s Other topics in the theory of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, and their ions
32. Atomic Properties and Interactions with Photons
32.10.-f Properties of atoms and atomic ions
32.10.Bi Atomic masses, mass spectra, abundances, and isotopes: (for mass spectroscopy, see 07.75)
32.10.Dk Electric and magnetic moments, polarizability
32.10.Fn Fine and hyperfine structure
32.10.Hq Ionization potentials, electron affinities
32.30.-r Atomic spectra
32.30.Bv Radio-frequency, microwave, and infrared spectra
32.30.Dx Magnetic resonance spectra
32.30.Jc Visible and ultraviolet spectra
32.30.Rj X-ray spectra
32.50.+d Fluorescence, phosphorescence (including quenching)
32.60.+i Zeeman and Stark effects
32.70.-n Intensities and shapes of atomic spectral lines
32.70.Cs Oscillator strengths, lifetimes, transition moments
32.70.Fw Absolute and relative intensities
32.70.Jz Line shapes, widths, and shifts
32.80.-t Photon interactions with atoms (see also 42.50 Quantum optics)
32.80.Bx Level crossing and optical pumping
32.80.Cy Atomic scattering, cross sections, and form factors; Compton scattering
32.80.Dz Autoionization
32.80.Fb Photoionization of atoms and ions
32.80.Gc Photodetachment of atomic negative ions
32.80.Hd Auger effect and inner-shell excitation or ionization
32.80.Lg Mechanical effects of light on atoms, molecules, and ions
32.80.Pj Optical cooling of atoms; trapping
32.80.Qk Coherent control of atomic interactions with photons
32.80.Rm Multiphoton ionization and excitation to highly excited states (e.g., Rydberg states)
32.80.Wr Other multiphoton processes
32.80.Ys Weak-interaction effects in atoms
32.90.+a Other topics in atomic properties and interactions of atoms and ions with photons
33. Molecular Properties and Interactions with Photons
33.15.-e Properties of molecules and molecular ions
33.15.Bh General molecular conformation and symmetry; stereochemistry
33.15.Dj Interatomic distances and angles
33.15.Fm Bond strengths, dissociation energies
33.15.Hp Barrier heights (internal rotation, inversion, rotational isomerism, conformational dynamics)
33.15.Kr Electric and magnetic moments (and derivatives), polarizability, and magnetic susceptibility
33.15.Mt Rotation, vibration, and vibration-rotation constants
33.15.Pw Fine and hyperfine structure
33.15.Ry Ionization potentials, electron affinities, molecular core binding energy
33.15.Ta Mass spectra
33.15.Vb Correlation times in molecular dynamics
33.20.-t Molecular spectra
33.20.Bx Radio-frequency and microwave spectra
33.20.Ea Infrared spectra
33.20.Fb Raman and Rayleigh spectra (including optical scattering)
33.20.Kf Visible spectra
33.20.Lg Ultraviolet spectra
33.20.Ni Vacuum ultraviolet spectra
33.20.Rm X-ray spectra
33.20.Sn Rotational analysis
33.20.Tp Vibrational analysis
33.20.Vq Vibration-rotation analysis
33.20.Wr Vibronic, rovibronic, and rotation-electron-spin interactions
33.25.+k Nuclear resonance and relaxation
33.35.+r Electron resonance and relaxation
33.40.+f Multiple resonances (including double and higher-order resonance processes, such as double nuclear magnetic resonance, electron double resonance, and microwave optical double resonance)
33.45.+x Mossbauer spectra
33.50.-j Fluorescence and phosphorescence; radiationless transitions, quenching (intersystem crossing, internal conversion) (for energy transfer, see also 34)
33.50.Dq Fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra
33.50.Hv Radiationless transitions, quenching
33.55.-b Optical activity and dichroism; magnetooptical and electrooptical spectra
33.55.Ad Optical activity, optical rotation; circular dichroism
33.55.Be Zeeman and Stark effects
33.55.Fi Other magnetooptical and electrooptical effects
33.60.-q Photoelectron spectra
33.60.Cv Ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet photoelectron spectra
33.60.Fy X-ray photoelectron spectra
33.70.-w Intensities and shapes of molecular spectral lines and bands
33.70.Ca Oscillator and band strengths, lifetimes, transition moments, and Franck-Condon factors
33.70.Fd Absolute and relative line and band intensities
33.70.Jg Line and band widths, shapes, and shifts
33.80.-b Photon interactions with molecules (see also 42.50 Quantum optics)
33.80.Be Level crossing and optical pumping
33.80.Eh Autoionization, photoionization, and photodetachment
33.80.Gj Diffuse spectra; predissociation, photodissociation
33.80.Ps Optical cooling of molecules; trapping
33.80.Rv Multiphoton ionization and excitation to highly excited states (e.g., Rydberg states)
33.80.Wz Other multiphoton processes
33.90.+h Other topics in molecular properties and interactions with photons
34. Atomic and Molecular Collision Processes and Interactions
34.10.+x General theories and models of atomic and molecular collisions and interactions (including statistical theories, transition state, stochastic and trajectory models, etc.)
34.20.-b Interatomic and intermolecular potentials and forces, potential energy surfaces for collisions
34.20.Cf Interatomic potentials and forces
34.20.Gj Intermolecular and atom-molecule potentials and forces
34.20.Mq Potential energy surfaces for collisions (see also 82.20.K Potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions)
34.30.+h Intramolecular energy transfer; intramolecular dynamics; dynamics of van der Waals molecules
34.50.-s Scattering of atoms, molecules, and ions
34.50.Bw Energy loss and stopping power
34.50.Dy Interactions of atoms, molecules, and their ions with surfaces; photon and electron emission; neutralization of ions
34.50.Ez Rotational and vibrational energy transfer
34.50.Fa Electronic excitation and ionization of atoms (including beam-foil excitation and ionization)
34.50.Gb Electronic excitation and ionization of molecules; intermediate molecular states (including lifetimes, state mixing, etc.)
34.50.Lf Chemical reactions, energy disposal, and angular distribution, as studied by atomic and molecular beams (for atomic and molecular beam reactions, see 82.40.D)
34.50.Pi State-to-state scattering analyses
34.50.Rk Laser-modified scattering and reactions
34.60.+z Scattering in highly excited states (e.g., Rydberg states)
34.70.+e Charge transfer (for charge transfer reactions, see 82.30.F)
34.80.-i Electron scattering
34.80.Bm Elastic scattering of electrons by atoms and molecules
34.80.Dp Atomic excitation and ionization by electron impact
34.80.Gs Molecular excitation and ionization by electron impact
34.80.Ht Dissociation and dissociative attachment by electron impact
34.80.Kw Electron-ion scattering; excitation and ionization
34.80.Lx Electron-ion recombination and electron attachment
34.80.My Fundamental electron inelastic processes in weakly ionized gases
34.80.Nz Spin dependence of cross sections; polarized electron beam experiments
34.80.Pa Coherence and correlation in electron scattering
34.80.Qb Laser-modified scattering
34.90.+q Other topics in atomic and molecular collision processes and interactions
36. Studies of Special Atoms, Molecules, and Their Ions; Clusters
36.10.-k Exotic atoms and molecules (containing mesons, muons, and other unusual particles)
36.10.Dr Positronium, muonium, muonic atoms and molecules
36.10.Gv Mesonic atoms and molecules, hyperonic atoms and molecules
36.20.-r Macromolecules and polymer molecules (for polymer reactions and polymerization, see 82.35; for biological macromolecules and polymers, see 87.15)
36.20.Cw Molecular weights, dispersity
36.20.Ey Conformation (statistics and dynamics)
36.20.Fz Constitution (chains and sequences)
36.20.Hb Configuration (bonds, dimensions)
36.20.Kd Electronic structure and spectra
36.20.Ng Vibrational and rotational structure, infrared and Raman spectra
36.40.-c Atomic and molecular clusters: (see also 61.46 Solid clusters and nanoparticles)
36.40.Cg Electronic and magnetic properties of clusters
36.40.Ei Phase transitions in clusters
36.40.Gk Plasma and collective effects in clusters
36.40.Jn Reactivity of clusters
36.40.Mr Spectroscopy and geometrical structure of clusters
36.40.Qv Stability and fragmentation of clusters
36.40.Sx Diffusion and dynamics of clusters
36.40.Vz Optical properties of clusters
36.40.Wa Charged clusters
36.90.+f Other special atoms, molecules, ions, and clusters
39. Instrumentation and Techniques for Atomic and Molecular Physics
39.10.+j Atomic and molecular beam sources and techniques
39.20.+q Atom interferometry techniques: (see also 03.75.Dg Atom and neutron interferometry)
39.30.+w Spectroscopic techniques
39.90.+d Other instrumentation and techniques for atomic and molecular physics

1996 PACS, 40. - 49.

40. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS)
41. Electromagnetism; Electron and Ion Optics
41.20.-q Electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields
41.20.Bt Maxwell equations, time-varying fields, conservation laws (see also 03.50.D Maxwell theory)
41.20.Cv Electrostatics; Poisson and Laplace equations, boundary-value problems
41.20.Gz Magnetostatics; magnetic shielding, magnetic induction, boundary- value problems
41.20.Jb Electromagnetic wave propagation; radiowave propagation (see also 84.40.C Radiowave and microwave propagation; for light propagation, see 42.25.B; for propagation in plasma, see 52.35.H; for ionospheric and magnetospheric propagation, see 94.20.B and 94.30.T)
41.50.+h X-ray beams (see also 07.85.F in instruments)
41.60.-m Radiation by moving charges
41.60.Ap Synchrotron radiation (for synchrotron radiation instrumentation, see 07.85.Q)
41.60.Bq Cherenkov radiation
41.60.Cr Free-electron lasers (see also 52.75.M Free-electron devices)
41.75.-i Charged-particle beams
41.75.Ak Positive-ion beams
41.75.Cn Negative-ion beams
41.75.Fr Electron and positron beams
41.75.Ht Relativistic electron and positron beams
41.75.Lx Advanced accelerator concepts
41.85.-p Beam optics (see also 07.77 Atomic, molecular, and charged particle sources and detectors, 29.27 Beams in particle accelerators)
41.85.Ar Beam extraction, beam injection
41.85.Ct Beam shaping, beam splitting
41.85.Ew Beam profile, beam intensity
41.85.Gy Chromatic and geometrical aberrations
41.85.Ja Beam transport
41.85.Lc Beam focusing and bending magnets, wiggler magnets, and quadrupoles (see also 07.55.D--in instruments, 85.70.N--in magnetic devices; for superconducting magnets, see 85.25.L)
41.85.Ne Electrostatic lenses, septa
41.85.Qg Beam analyzers, beam monitors, and Faraday cups
41.85.Si Beam collimators, monochromators
41.90.+e Other topics in electromagnetism; electron and ion optics
42. Optics (for optical properties of gases, see 51.70; for optical properties of condensed matter, see 78)
42.15.-i Geometrical optics
42.15.Dp Wave fronts and ray tracing
42.15.Eq Optical system design
42.15.Fr Aberrations
42.15.Gs Other topics in geometrical optics
42.25.-p Wave optics
42.25.Bs Wave propagation; transmission and absorption (for radiowave propagation, see 41.20.J and 84.40.C; for propagation in atmosphere, see 42.68.A; see also 52.40.D, N--in plasma physics)
42.25.Fx Diffraction and scattering
42.25.Gy Edge and boundary effects; reflection and refraction
42.25.Hz Interference
42.25.Ja Polarization
42.25.Kb Coherence
42.25.Lc Birefringence
42.25.Md Other topics in wave optics
42.30.-d Imaging and optical processing
42.30.Kq Fourier optics
42.30.Lr Modulation and optical transfer functions
42.30.Ms Speckle and moire patterns
42.30.Rx Phase retrieval
42.30.Sy Pattern recognition
42.30.Tz Computer vision; robotic vision
42.30.Va Image forming and processing
42.30.Wb Image reconstruction; tomography
42.30.Yc Other topics in imaging and optical processing
42.40.-i Holography
42.40.Eq Holographic optical elements; holographic gratings
42.40.Ht Hologram recording and read-out methods (see also 42.70.L Holographic recording materials; optical storage media)
42.40.Jv Computer-generated holograms
42.40.Kw Holographic interferometry; other holographic techniques (see also 07.60.L Interferometers)
42.40.Lx Diffraction efficiency, resolution, and other hologram characteristics
42.40.My Applications
42.40.Pa Volume holograms
42.50.-p Quantum optics (for lasers, see 42.55 and 42.60; see also 42.65 Nonlinear optics, 03.65 Quantum mechanics)
42.50.Ar Photon statistics and coherence theory
42.50.Ct Quantum statistical description of interaction of light and matter; related experiments
42.50.Dv Nonclassical field states; squeezed, antibunched, and sub-Poissonian states; operational definitions of the phase of the field; phase measurements
42.50.Fx Cooperative phenomena; superradiance and superfluorescence
42.50.Gy Effects of atomic coherence on propagation, absorption, and amplification of light
42.50.Hz Strong-field excitation of optical transitions in quantum systems; multi-photon processes; dynamic Stark shift (for multiphoton ionization and excitation of atoms and molecules, see 32.80.R, and 33.80.R, respectively)
42.50.Lc Quantum fluctuations, quantum noise, and quantum jumps
42.50.Md Optical transient phenomena: quantum beats, photon echo, free- induction decay, dephasings and revivals, and optical nutation, and self-induced transparency
42.50.Vk Mechanical effects of light on atoms, molecules, electrons, and ions (see also 32.80.P and 33.80.P Optical cooling and trapping of atoms and molecules)
42.55.-f Lasers
42.55.Ah General laser theory
42.55.Ks Chemical lasers (for chemical laser kinetics, see 82.40.T)
42.55.Lt Gas lasers including excimer and metal-vapor lasers
42.55.Mv Dye lasers
42.55.Px Semiconductor lasers; laser diodes
42.55.Rz Doped-insulator lasers and other solid state lasers
42.55.Sa Microcavity and microdisk lasers
42.55.Vc X- and gamma-ray lasers
42.55.Wd Fiber lasers
42.55.Xi Diode-pumped lasers
42.55.Ye Raman lasers (see also 42.65.D Stimulated Raman scattering; CARS)
42.60.-v Laser optical systems: design and operation
42.60.By Design of specific laser systems
42.60.Da Resonators, cavities, amplifiers, arrays, and rings
42.60.Fc Modulation, tuning, and mode locking
42.60.Gd Q-switching
42.60.Jf Beam characteristics: profile, intensity, and power; spatial pattern formation
42.60.Lh Efficiency, stability, gain, and other operational parameters
42.60.Mi Dynamical laser instabilities; noisy laser behavior
42.60.Pk Continuous operation
42.60.Rn Relaxation oscillations and long pulse operation
42.62.-b Laser applications (for LIDAR, see 42.79.Q)
42.62.Be Biological and medical applications
42.62.Cf Industrial applications
42.62.Eh Metrological applications (see also 06.20 Metrology, 06.30 Measurements common to several branches of physics and astronomy)
42.62.Fi Laser spectroscopy
42.62.Hk Other applications
42.65.-k Nonlinear optics
42.65.An Optical susceptibility, hyperpolarizability (see also 33.15.M Electric and magnetic moments, polarizability and magnetic susceptibility of molecules)
42.65.Dr Stimulated Raman scattering; CARS
42.65.Es Stimulated Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering
42.65.Hw Phase conjugation, optical mixing, and photorefractive effect
42.65.Jx Beam trapping, self-focusing, and thermal blooming
42.65.Ky Harmonic generation and frequency conversion (see also 42.79.N Optical frequency converters)
42.65.Pc Optical bistability, multistability, and switching (see also 42.60.G Switching and pulsing; 42.79.T Optical computers, logic elements, interconnects, switches; neural networks)
42.65.Re Ultrafast processes; optical pulse generation and pulse compression (see also 42.60.G Switching and pulsing)
42.65.Sf Dynamics of nonlinear optical systems; optical instabilities, optical chaos, and optical spatio-temporal dynamics
42.65.Tg Optical solitons; nonlinear guided waves (for solitons in fibers, see 42.81.D)
42.65.Vh Other nonlinear optical phenomena
42.65.Wi Nonlinear waveguides
42.65.Yj Optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers
42.66.-p Physiological optics
42.66.Ct Anatomy and optics of eye
42.66.Ew Physiology of eye; optic-nerve structure and function
42.66.Lc Vision: light detection, adaptation, and discrimination
42.66.Ne Color vision: color detection, adaptation, and discrimination
42.66.Qg Scales for light and color detection
42.66.Si Psychophysics of vision, visual perception; binocular vision
42.68.-w Atmospheric optics
42.68.Ay Propagation, transmission, attenuation, and radiative transfer (see also 92.60.T Interaction of atmosphere with electromagnetic waves; propagation)
42.68.Bz Atmospheric turbulence effects (see also 92.60.E Convection, turbulence, and diffusion)
42.68.Ca Spectral absorption by atmospheric gases (see also 94.10.G Absorption and scattering of radiation)
42.68.Ge Effects of clouds and water (see also 92.60.J Water in the atmosphere, 92.60.N Cloud physics)
42.68.Jg Effects of aerosols (see also 92.60.M Particles and aerosols)
42.68.Kh Effects of air pollution (see also 92.60.S Air quality and air pollution)
42.68.Mj Scattering, polarization (see also 94.10.G Absorption and scattering of radiation)
42.68.Sq Image transmission and formation
42.68.Wt Remote sensing, LIDAR, and adaptive systems
42.70.-a Optical materials (for materials science, see 81; for optical properties of bulk materials, see 78.20)
42.70.Ce Glasses, quartz
42.70.Df Liquid crystals (for structure of liquid crystals, see 61.30)
42.70.Gi Light-sensitive materials
42.70.Hj Laser materials
42.70.Jk Polymers and organics
42.70.Km Infrared transmitting materials
42.70.Ln Holographic recording materials; optical storage media
42.70.Mp Nonlinear optical crystals (see also 77.84 Dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric materials)
42.70.Nq Other nonlinear optical materials; photorefractive and semiconductor materials
42.70.Qs Photonic bandgap materials
42.72.-g Optical sources and standards (for lasers, see 42.55; see also 07.57.H in instruments)
42.72.Ai Infrared sources
42.72.Bj Visible and ultraviolet sources
42.79.-e Optical elements, devices, and systems (for integrated optics, see 42.82; for fiber optics see 42.81)
42.79.Ag Apertures, collimators
42.79.Bh Lenses, prisms, and mirrors
42.79.Ci Filters, zone plates, and polarizers
42.79.Dj Gratings (for holographic gratings, see 42.40.E)
42.79.Ek Solar collectors and concentrators (see also 84.60.J Solar cells and arrays)
42.79.Fm Reflectors, beam splitters, and deflectors
42.79.Gn Optical waveguides and couplers (for fiber waveguides and waveguides in integrated optics see 42.81.Q and 42.82.E, respectively)
42.79.Hp Optical processors, correlators, and modulators
42.79.Jq Acousto-optical devices (see also 43.38.Z - in acoustics appendix)
42.79.Kr Display devices, liquid-crystal devices (see also 85.60.P Display systems)
42.79.Ls Scanners, image intensifiers, and image converters (see also 85.60 Photoelectric and optoelectronic devices and systems)
42.79.Mt Schlieren devices
42.79.Nv Optical frequency converters
42.79.Pw Imaging detectors and sensors (see also 85.60.G Photodetectors)
42.79.Qx Range finders, remote sensing devices; laser Doppler velocimeters, SAR, and LIDAR (see also 42.68.W Remote sensing; LIDAR, and adaptive systems)
42.79.Ry Gradient-index (GRIN) devices (for fiber GRIN devices, see 42.81.H)
42.79.Sz Optical communication systems, multiplexers, and demultiplexers
42.79.Ta Optical computers, logic elements, interconnects, switches; neural networks
42.79.Vb Optical storage systems, optical disks (see also 42.40.H Hologram recording and readout methods)
42.79.Wc Optical coatings
42.79.Yd Other optical elements, devices, and systems
42.81.-i Fiber optics
42.81.Bm Fabrication, cladding, and splicing
42.81.Cn Fiber testing and measurement of fiber parameters
42.81.Dp Propagation, scattering, and losses; solitons
42.81.Gs Birefringence, polarization
42.81.Ht Gradient-index (GRIN) fiber devices
42.81.Pa Sensors, gyros
42.81.Qb Fiber waveguides, couplers, and arrays
42.81.Wg Other fiber-optical devices (for fiber lasers, see 42.55.W)
42.82.-m Integrated optics
42.82.Bq Design and performance testing of integrated-optical systems
42.82.Cr Fabrication techniques; lithography, pattern transfer
42.82.Ds Interconnects, including holographic interconnects (see also 42.79.T Optical computers, logic elements, interconnects, switches; neural networks)
42.82.Et Waveguides, couplers, and arrays (for fiber waveguides see 42.81.Q)
42.82.Fv Hybrid systems
42.82.Gw Other integrated-optical elements and systems
42.86.+b Optical workshop techniques
42.87.-d Optical testing techniques
42.87.Bg Phase shifting interferometry (see also 07.60.L Interferometers)
42.87.Ch Other optical testing techniques
42.88.+h Radiation effects on optical elements, devices, and systems
42.90.+m Other topics in optics
43. Acoustics (for more detailed headings, see Appendix to 43)
43.20.+g General linear acoustics (see also 03.40.K Waves and wave propagation: general mathematical aspects)
43.25.+y Nonlinear acoustics, macrosonics
43.28.+h Aeroacoustics, atmospheric sound (see also 92.60. Meteorology)
43.30.+m Underwater sound (see also 92.10.V - in physics of oceans)
43.35.+d Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound
43.38.+n Transduction; acoustical devices for the generation and reproduction of sound
43.40.+s Structural acoustics and vibration
43.50.+y Noise: its effects and control
43.55.+p Architectural acoustics
43.58.+z Acoustical measurements and instrumentation
43.60.+d Acoustic signal processing
43.64.+r Physiological acoustics
43.66.+y Psychological acoustics
43.70.+i Speech production
43.71.+m Speech perception
43.72.+q Speech processing and communication systems
43.75.+a Music and musical instruments
43.80.+p Bioacoustics
43.90.+v Other topics in acoustics
44. Heat transfer, Thermal and Thermodynamic Processes
44.10.+i Heat conduction (models, phenomenological description)
44.25.+f Convective and constrained heat transfer (see also 47.27.T Convection and heat transfer)
44.30.+v Heat transfer in inhomogeneous media, in porous media, and through interfaces
44.40.+a Radiative heat transfer
44.50.+f Thermal properties of matter (phenomenology, experimental techniques)
44.60.+k Thermodynamic processes (phenomenology, experimental techniques)
44.90.+c Other topics in heat transfer, thermal and thermodynamic processes
46. Classical Mechanics (for mechanical properties of condensed matter, see 62; for rheology, see 83)
46.10.+z Mechanics of discrete systems (see also 03.20 - general mathematical aspects, 95.10.C Celestial mechanics)
46.30.-i Structural mechanics of shells, plates, and beams
46.30.Cn Static elasticity
46.30.Lx Static buckling and instability
46.30.My Vibrations, aeroelasticity, hydroelasticity, mechanical waves, and shocks
46.30.Nz Fracture mechanics, fatigue, and cracks
46.30.Pa Friction, wear, adherence, hardness, mechanical contacts, tribology (see also 81.40.P - in materials science)
46.30.Rc Measurement methods and techniques
46.90.+s Other topics in classical mechanics
47. Fluid Dynamics (for fluid dynamics of quantum fluids, see 67; see also 83 Rheology)
47.10.+g General theory (see also 03.40.G - general mathematical aspects; 83.10 - in rheology)
47.11.+j Computational methods in fluid dynamics (see also 83.85.P Flow computation; 02.70 - in mathematical methods in physics)
47.15.-x Laminar flows
47.15.Cb Laminar boundary layers
47.15.Fe Stability of laminar flows
47.15.Gf Low-Reynolds-number (creeping) flows
47.15.Hg Potential flows
47.15.Ki Inviscid flows with vorticity
47.15.Pn Laminar suspensions
47.15.Rq Laminar flows in cavities
47.17.+e Mechanical properties of fluids (see also 62.10 Mechanical properties of liquids)
47.20.-k Hydrodynamic stability
47.20.Bp Buoyancy-driven instability
47.20.Cq Inviscid instability
47.20.Dr Surface-tension-driven instability
47.20.Ft Instability of shear flows
47.20.Gv Viscous instability
47.20.Hw Morphological instability; phase changes (see also 64 Equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions)
47.20.Ky Nonlinearity (including bifurcation theory)
47.20.Lz Secondary instability
47.20.Ma Interfacial instability
47.20.Pc Receptivity
47.27.-i Turbulent flows, convection, and heat transfer
47.27.Ak Fundamentals
47.27.Cn Transition to turbulence
47.27.Eq Turbulence simulation and modeling
47.27.Gs Isotropic turbulence; homogeneous turbulence
47.27.Jv High-Reynolds-number turbulence
47.27.Lx Wall-bounded thin shear flows
47.27.Nz Boundary layer and shear turbulence
47.27.Pa Thick shear flows
47.27.Qb Turbulent diffusion
47.27.Rc Turbulence control
47.27.Sd Noise (turbulence generated)
47.27.Te Convection and heat transfer (see also 44.25 Convective and constrained heat transfer)
47.27.Vf Wakes
47.27.Wg Jets
47.32.-y Rotational flow and vorticity
47.32.Cc Vortex dynamics
47.32.Ff Separated flows
47.35.+i Hydrodynamic waves
47.37.+q Hydrodynamic aspects of superfluidity (see also 67.40.H and 67.57.D - in quantum fluids and solids)
47.40.-x Compressible flows; shock and detonation phenomena (see also 28.70 Nuclear explosions, 52.35.T Shock waves in plasma, 83.50.T--in rheology, 43.25.C, 43.28.M and 43.40.J--in acoustics appendix)
47.40.Dc General subsonic flows
47.40.Hg Transonic flows
47.40.Ki Supersonic and hypersonic flows
47.40.Nm Shock-wave interactions and shock effects
47.45.-n Rarefied gas dynamics
47.45.Dt Free molecular flows
47.45.Gx Slip flows
47.45.Nd Accommodation
47.50.+d Non-Newtonian fluid flows (see also 83.50 Deformation, material flow)
47.52.+j Chaos (see also 05.45 Theoretical models of chaotic systems, 83.50.W Chaotic flows; drag reduction)
47.53.+n Fractals
47.54.+r Pattern selection
47.55.-t Nonhomogeneous flows
47.55.Bx Cavitation
47.55.Dz Drops and bubbles
47.55.Hd Stratified flows
47.55.Kf Multiphase and particle-laden flows
47.55.Mh Flows through porous media (for heat transfer in porous media, see 44.30)
47.60.+i Flows in ducts, channels, nozzles, and conduits (see also 83.10 and 83.50 - in rheology)
47.62.+q Flow control
47.65.+a Magnetohydrodynamics and electrohydrodynamics (for MHD in plasma, see 52.30)
47.70.-n Reactive, radiative, or nonequilibrium flows
47.70.Fw Chemically reactive flows (see also 83.80.J Chemically reactive materials)
47.70.Mc Radiation gas dynamics
47.70.Nd Nonequilibrium gas dynamics
47.75.+f Relativistic fluid dynamics (for astrophysical aspects,see 95.30.L)
47.80.+v Instrumentation for fluid dynamics (see also 83.85 - in rheology; 07.30 Vacuum apparatus and techniques)
47.90.+a Other topics in fluid dynamics

1996 PACS, 50. - 59.

50. PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES: (for flow properties of gases, see 47; for atomic and molecular properties, see 30)
51. Physics of Gases
51.10.+y Kinetic and transport theory of gases
51.20.+d Viscosity, diffusion, and thermal conductivity
51.30.+i Thermodynamic properties, equations of state
51.35.+a Mechanical properties; compressibility
51.40.+p Acoustical properties: (see also 43.28 Aeroacoustics, atmospheric sound; for ultrasonic relaxation in gases, see 43.35.F in acoustic appendix)
51.50.+v Electrical properties (ionization, breakdown, electron and ion mobility, etc.): (see also 52.80 Electric discharges)
51.60.+a Magnetic properties
51.70.+f Optical and dielectric properties
51.90.+r Other topics in the physics of gases
52. Physics of Plasmas and Electric Discharges: (for astrophysical plasmas, see 95.30.Q; for physics of the ionosphere and magnetosphere, see 94.20 and 94.30)
52.20.-j Elementary processes in plasma
52.20.Dq Particle orbits
52.20.Fs Electron collisions
52.20.Hv Atomic, molecular, ion, and heavy-particle collisions
52.25.-b Plasma properties
52.25.Dg Plasma kinetic equations
52.25.Fi Transport properties
52.25.Gj Fluctuation phenomena (see also 52.35.R Plasma turbulence)
52.25.Jm Ionization of plasmas
52.25.Kn Thermodynamics of plasmas
52.25.Mq Dielectric properties
52.25.Nr Emission, absorption, and scattering of X and gamma radiation
52.25.Qt Emission, absorption, and scattering of ultraviolet radiation
52.25.Rv Emission, absorption, and scattering of visible and infrared radiation
52.25.Sw Emission, absorption, and scattering of radio-wave and microwave radiation
52.25.Tx Emission, absorption, and scattering of particles
52.25.Vy Impurities in plasmas
52.25.Wz Nonneutral plasmas
52.25.Ya Neutrals in plasma
52.30.-q Plasma flow; magnetohydrodynamics (see also 47.65-in fluid dynamics; for MHD generators, see 52.75.F)
52.30.Bt MHD equilibria
52.30.Jb Resistive MHD effects
52.35.-g Waves, oscillations, and instabilities in plasma
52.35.Bj Magnetohydrodynamic waves
52.35.Dm Sound waves
52.35.Fp Electrostatic waves and oscillations (e.g., ion-acoustic waves)
52.35.Hr Electromagnetic waves (e.g., electron-cyclotron, Whistler, Bernstein, upper hybrid, lower hybrid)
52.35.Kt Drift waves
52.35.Lv Other linear waves
52.35.Mw Nonlinear waves and nonlinear wave propagation (including parametric effects, mode coupling, ponderomotive effects, etc.)
52.35.Nx Other nonlinear interactions and phenomena (e.g., Brillouin scattering and Rayleigh scattering)
52.35.Py Plasma macroinstabilities (hydromagnetic, e.g., kink, fire-hose, mirror, ballooning, tearing, trapped-particle, flute, Rayleigh-Taylor, etc.)
52.35.Qz Plasma microinstabilities (ion-acoustic, two-stream, loss-cone, beam- plasma, drift, ion- or electron-cyclotron, etc.)
52.35.Ra Plasma turbulence
52.35.Sb Solitons; BGK modes
52.35.Tc Shock waves
52.40.-w Plasma interactions
52.40.Db Electromagnetic (nonlaser) radiation interactions with plasma
52.40.Fd Plasma interactions with antennas; plasma-filled waveguides
52.40.Hf Plasma-wall interactions; boundary layer effects; plasma sheaths
52.40.Mj Particle beam interactions in plasma
52.40.Nk Laser-plasma interactions (e.g., anomalous absorption, backscattering, magnetic field generation, fast particle generation)
52.50.-b Plasma production and heating
52.50.Dg Plasma sources
52.50.Gj Plasma heating (beam injection, radio-frequency and microwave, ohmic, ICR, ECR, and current drive heating)
52.50.Jm Plasma production and heating by laser beams
52.50.Lp Plasma production and heating by shock waves and compression
52.55.-s Magnetic confinement and equilibrium
52.55.Dy General theory and basic studies of plasma lifetime, particle and heat loss, energy balance, etc.
52.55.Ez Z-Pinch, theta pinch, and other pinch devices
52.55.Fa Tokamaks
52.55.Hc Stellarators, spheromaks, compact tori, bumpy tori, and other toroidal confinement devices
52.55.Jd Magnetic mirrors
52.55.Lf Astron, cusp, and other magnetic traps
52.55.Pi Fusion products effects (e.g., alpha-particles, etc.)
52.58.-c Nonmagnetic confinement
52.58.Ei Light-ion inertial confinement
52.58.Hm Heavy-ion inertial confinement
52.58.Ns Other inertial confinement (including laser)
52.58.Qv Electrostatic, high frequency, and other nonmagnetic confinement
52.60.+h Relativistic plasma
52.65.-y Plasma simulation
52.65.Cc Particle orbit and trajectory
52.65.Ff Fokker-Planck equation
52.65.Kj Magnetohydrodynamic and fluid equation
52.65.Pp Monte Carlo methods
52.65.Rr Particle-in-cell method
52.65.Tt Gyrofluid and gyrokinetic simulations
52.70.-m Plasma diagnostic techniques and instrumentation
52.70.Ds Electric and magnetic measurements
52.70.Gw Radio-frequency and microwave measurements
52.70.Kz Optical (ultraviolet, visible, infrared) measurements
52.70.La X-ray and gamma-ray measurements
52.70.Nc Particle measurements
52.75.-d Plasma devices and applications (see also 28.52 Fusion reactors; for ion sources, see 29.25.L, N; for plasma sources, see 52.50.D)
52.75.Di Accelerators and propulsion
52.75.Fk Magnetohydrodynamic generators and thermionic convertors; plasma diodes
52.75.Hn Plasma torches
52.75.Kq Plasma switches (e.g., spark gaps)
52.75.Ms Free-electron devices (for free-electron lasers, see 41.60.C)
52.75.Pv High-voltage diodes (see also 84.70 High-current and high-voltage technology)
52.75.Rx Plasma applications in manufacturing and materials processing (etching, surface cleaning, spraying, arc welding, ion implantation, film deposition, etc.)
52.75.Va Devices for generation of coherent radiation
52.80.-s Electric discharges (see also 51.50 Electrical properties in gases)
52.80.Dy Low-field and Townsend discharges
52.80.Hc Glow; corona
52.80.Mg Arcs; sparks; lightning
52.80.Pi High-frequency discharges
52.80.Qj Explosions; exploding wires
52.80.Sm Magnetoactive discharges (e.g., Penning discharges)
52.80.Tn Other gas discharges
52.80.Vp Discharge in vacuum
52.80.Wq Discharge in liquids (for electric breakdown in liquids, see 77.22.J)
52.80.Yr Discharges for spectral sources (including inductively coupled plasma)
52.90.+z Other topics in physics of plasmas and electric discharges

1996 PACS, 60. - 69.

60. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES
61. Structure of Solids and Liquids; Crystallography (for surface structure, see 68.35.B; for thin film structure, see 68.55.J)
61.10.-i X-ray diffraction and scattering (for diffractometers, see 07.85.J)
61.10.Dp Theories of diffraction and scattering
61.10.Eq X-ray scattering (including small-angle scattering)
61.10.Ht X-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS, NEXAFS, XANES, etc.
61.10.Kw X-ray reflectometry (surfaces, interfaces, films)
61.10.Nz Single-crystal and powder diffraction
61.10.Yh Other x-ray techniques for structure analysis
61.12.-q Neutron diffraction and scattering
61.12.Bt Theories of diffraction and scattering
61.12.Ex Neutron scattering techniques (including small-angle scattering)
61.12.Ha Neutron reflectrometry
61.12.Ld Single-crystal and powder diffraction
61.12.Yp Other neutron diffraction and scattering techniques for structure analysis
61.14.-x Electron diffraction and scattering
61.14.Dc Theories of diffraction and scattering
61.14.Hg Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED)
61.14.Lj Convergent-beam electron diffraction, selected-area electron diffraction, nanodiffraction
61.14.Nm Electron holography
61.14.Qp X-ray photoelectron diffraction
61.14.Rq Other electron diffraction and scattering techniques for structure analysis
61.16.-d Electron, ion, and scanning probe microscopy (for electron microscopy of crystal defects, see 61.72.F)
61.16.Bg Transmission, reflection and scanning electron microscopy (including EBIC)
61.16.Ch Scanning probe microscopy: scanning tunneling, atomic force, scanning optical, magnetic force, etc.
61.16.Fk Field emission and field-ion microscopy
61.16.Ms Scanning Auger microscopy, photoelectron microscopy
61.16.Yc Other electron, ion and scanning probe microscopies
61.18.-j Other methods of structure determination
61.18.Bn Atom, molecule, and ion scattering
61.18.Fs Magnetic resonance techniques; Moessbauer spectroscopy
61.20.-p Structure of liquids
61.20.Gy Theory and models of liquid structure
61.20.Ja Computer simulation of liquid structure
61.20.Lc Time-dependent properties; relaxation (for glass transitions, see 64.70.P)
61.20.Ne Structure of simple liquids
61.20.Qg Structure of associated liquids: electrolytes, molten salts, etc.
61.25.-f Studies of specific liquid structures
61.25.Bi Liquid noble gases
61.25.Em Molecular liquids
61.25.Hq Macromolecular and polymer solutions; polymer melts; swelling
61.25.Mv Liquid metals and alloys
61.30.-v Liquid crystals (see also 64.70.M Transitions in liquid crystals)
61.30.Cz Theory and models of liquid crystal structure
61.30.Eb Experimental determinations of smectic, nematic, cholesteric, and other structures
61.30.Gd Orientational order of liquid crystals; electric and magnetic field effects on order
61.30.Jf Defects in liquid crystals
61.41.+e Polymers, elastomers, and plastics (for materials synthesis, treatments, testing and analysis see 81.05.L; for rheology of polymers, see 83; for biopolymers, see 87.15)
61.43.-j Disordered solids
61.43.Bn Structural modeling: serial-addition models, computer simulation
61.43.Dq Amorphous semiconductors, metals, and alloys
61.43.Er Other amorphous solids
61.43.Fs Glasses
61.43.Gt Powders, porous materials
61.43.Hv Fractals; macroscopic aggregates (including diffusion-limited aggregates)
61.44.-n Semi-periodic solids
61.44.Br Quasicrystals
61.44.Fw Incommensurate crystals
61.46.+w Clusters, nanoparticles, and nanocrystalline materials (see also 36.40 Atomic and molecular clusters)
61.48.+c Fullerenes and fullerene-related materials
61.50.-f Crystalline state
61.50.Ah Theory of crystal structure, crystal symmetry; calculations and modeling
61.50.Ks Crystallographic aspects of phase transformations; pressure effects (see also 81.30.H)
61.50.Lt Crystal binding; cohesive energy
61.50.Nw Crystal stoichiometry
61.66.-f Structure of specific crystalline solids (for surface structure, see 68.35.B)
61.66.Bi Elemental solids
61.66.Dk Alloys
61.66.Fn Inorganic compounds
61.66.Hq Organic compounds
61.68.+n Crystallographic databases
61.72.-y Defects and impurities in crystals; microstructure (for radiation induced defects, see 61.80; for defects in surfaces, interfaces and thin films, see 68.35.D and 68.55.L; see also 85.40.R Impurity doping, diffusion and ion implantation technology)
61.72.Bb Theories and models of crystal defects
61.72.Cc Kinetics of defect formation and annealing
61.72.Dd Experimental determination of defects by diffraction and scattering
61.72.Ff Direct observation of dislocations and other defects (etch pits, decoration, electron microscopy, x-ray topography, etc.)
61.72.Hh Indirect evidence of dislocations and other defects (resistivity, slip, creep, strains, internal friction, EPR, NMR, etc.)
61.72.Ji Point defects (vacancies, interstitials, color centers, etc.) and defect clusters
61.72.Lk Linear defects: dislocations, disclinations
61.72.Mm Grain and twin boundaries
61.72.Nn Stacking faults and other planar or extended defects
61.72.Qq Microscopic defects (voids, inclusions, etc.)
61.72.Ss Impurity concentration, distribution, and gradients (for impurities in thin films, see 68.55.L; see also 66.30.J Diffusion of impurities)
61.72.Tt Doping and impurity implantation in germanium and silicon
61.72.Vv Doping and impurity implantation in III-V and II-VI semiconductors
61.72.Ww Doping and impurity implantation in other materials
61.72.Yx Interaction between different crystal defects; gettering effect
61.80.-x Physical radiation effects, radiation damage (for radiation chemistry, see 82.50; for biological effects of radiation, see 87.50)
61.80.Az Theory and models of radiation effects
61.80.Ba Ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation effects (including laser radiation)
61.80.Cb X-ray effects
61.80.Ed gamma ray effects
61.80.Fe Electrons and positron radiation effects
61.80.Hg Neutron radiation effects
61.80.Jh Ion radiation effects (for ion implantation, see 61.72.T, V, W)
61.80.Lj Atom and molecule irradiation effects
61.82.-d Radiation effects on specific materials
61.82.Bg Metals and alloys
61.82.Fk Semiconductors
61.82.Ms Insulators
61.82.Pv Polymers, organic compounds
61.82.Rx Nanocrystalline materials
61.85.+p Channeling phenomena (blocking, energy loss, etc.)
61.90.+d Other topics in structure of solids and liquids
62. Mechanical and Acoustical Properties of Condensed Matter (for structural mechanics of shells, plates and beams, see 46.30; for deformation and material flow, see 83.10 and 83.50; for nonlinear acoustics of solids, see 43.25.D in acoustics appendix; for mechanical and acoustical properties of interfaces and thin films, see 68.35.G, 68.45.N and 68.60.B; see also 81.40 Treatment of materials and its effects on microstructure and properties, and 81.70 Materials testing; for mechanical properties of rocks and minerals, see 91.60; for sound propagation in liquids and solids, see 43.20, 43.25, 43.30, and 43.35)
62.10.+s Mechanical properties of liquids (for viscosity of liquids, see 66.20)
62.20.-x Mechanical properties of solids
62.20.Dc Elasticity, elastic constants
62.20.Fe Deformation and plasticity (including yield, ductility, and superplasticity)
62.20.Hg Creep
62.20.Mk Fatigue, brittleness, fracture, and cracks
62.20.Qp Tribology and hardness (for tribology and hardness of shells, plates, and beams, see 46.30.P; see also 83.50.L in rheology)
62.30.+d Mechanical and elastic waves; vibrations (see also 43.40 Structural acoustics and vibration)
62.40.+i Anelasticity, internal friction, stress relaxation, and mechanical resonances
62.50.+p High-pressure and shock-wave effects in solids and liquids (for high pressure apparatus and techniques see 07.35)
62.60.+v Acoustical properties of liquids
62.65.+k Acoustical properties of solids
62.80.+f Ultrasonic relaxation (see also 43.35.F Ultrasonic relaxation processes in liquids and solids in acoustics appendix; for ultrasonic attenuation in superconductors, see 74.25.L)
62.90.+k Other topics in mechanical and acoustical properties of condensed matter
63. Lattice Dynamics (see also 78.30 Infrared and Raman spectra; for surface and interface vibrations, see 68.35.J and 68.45.K)
63.10.+a General theory
63.20.-e Phonons in crystal lattices (for phonons in superconductors, see 74.25.K)
63.20.Dj Phonon states and bands, normal modes, and phonon dispersion
63.20.Kr Phonon-electron and phonon-phonon interactions
63.20.Ls Phonon interactions with other quasiparticles
63.20.Mt Phonon-defect interactions
63.20.Pw Localized modes
63.20.Ry Anharmonic lattice modes
63.22.+m Phonons in low-dimensional structures and small particles
63.50.+x Vibrational states in disordered systems
63.70.+h Statistical mechanics of lattice vibrations and displacive phase transitions
63.90.+t Other topics in lattice dynamics
64. Equations of State, Phase Equilibria, and Phase Transitions (see also 82.60 Chemical thermodynamics)
64.10.+h General theory of equations of state and phase equilibria (see also 05.70.C Thermodynamic functions and equations of state)
64.30.+t Equations of state of specific substances
64.60.-i General studies of phase transitions (see also 63.75 Statistical mechanics of displacive phase transitions; for critical phenomena in quantum fluids, in solid surfaces and interfaces, and in magnetism, see 67, 68.35.R, and 75.40, respectively)
64.60.Ak Renormalization-group, fractal, and percolation studies of phase transitions (see also 61.43.H Fractals; macroscopic aggregates)
64.60.Cn Order-disorder transformations; statistical mechanics of model systems
64.60.Fr Equilibrium properties near critical points, critical exponents
64.60.Ht Dynamic critical phenomena
64.60.Kw Multicritical points
64.60.Lx Self-organized criticality; avalanche effect
64.60.My Metastable phases
64.60.Qb Nucleation (see also 82.60.N Thermodynamics of nucleation)
64.70.-p Specific phase transitions
64.70.Dv Solid-liquid transitions
64.70.Fx Liquid-vapor transitions
64.70.Hz Solid-vapor transitions
64.70.Ja Liquid-liquid transitions
64.70.Kb Solid-solid transitions (see also 61.50.K Crystallographic aspects of polymorphic and order-disorder transformations; 75.30.K and 77.80.B for magnetic and ferroelectric transitions, respectively; 81.30 - in material science)
64.70.Md Transitions in liquid crystals
64.70.Pf Glass transitions
64.70.Rh Commensurate-incommensurate transitions
64.75.+g Solubility, segregation, and mixing; phase separation
(see also 82.60.L Thermodynamics of solutions)
64.90.+b Other topics in equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions
65. Thermal Properties of Condensed Matter (see also 05.70 Thermodynamics; for thermodynamic properties of quantum fluids, see 67.40.K, 67.55.C, 67.57.B; for thermal properties of solid helium, see 67.80.G; for thermal properties of thin films, see 68.60.D; for thermal conduction, see 66.60, 66.70 and 72.15; for thermal properties of rocks and minerals, see 91.60)
65.20.+w Heat capacities of liquids
65.40.+g Heat capacities of solids
(for specific heat of superconductors, see 74.25.B; for specific heat of magnetic systems, see 75.40.C)
65.50.+m Thermodynamic properties and entropy
65.70.+y Thermal expansion and density changes; thermomechanical effects
65.90.+i Other topics in thermal properties of condensed matter
66. Transport Properties of Condensed Matter (nonelectronic)
66.10.-x Diffusion and ionic conduction in liquids
66.10.Cb Diffusion and thermal diffusion (for osmosis, see also 82.65.F)
66.10.Ed Ionic conduction
66.20.+d Viscosity of liquids; diffusive momentum transport
66.30.-h Diffusion in solids (for surface and interface diffusion, see 68.35.F)
66.30.Dn Theory of diffusion and ionic conduction in solids
66.30.Fq Self-diffusion in metals, semimetals, and alloys
66.30.Hs Self-diffusion and ionic conduction in nonmetals
66.30.Jt Diffusion of impurities
66.30.Lw Diffusion of other defects
66.30.Ny Chemical interdiffusion; diffusion barriers
66.30.Qa Electromigration
66.35.+a Quantum tunneling of defects
66.60.+a Thermal conduction in nonmetallic liquids (for thermal conduction in liquid metals, see 72.15.C)
66.70.+f Nonelectronic thermal conduction and heat-pulse propagation in solids; thermal waves (for thermal conduction in metals and alloys, see 72.15.C and 72.15.E)
66.90.+r Other topics in nonelectronic transport properties of condensed matter
67. Quantum Fluids and Solids; Liquid and Solid Helium (see also 05.30 Quantum statistical mechanics)
67.20.+k Quantum effects on the structure and dynamics of nondegenerate fluids (e.g., normal phase liquid helium-4)
67.40.-w Boson degeneracy and superfluidity of helium-4
67.40.Bz Phenomenology and two-fluid models
67.40.Db Quantum statistical theory; ground state, elementary excitations
67.40.Fd Dynamics of relaxation phenomena
67.40.Hf Hydrodynamics in specific geometries, flow in narrow channels
67.40.Jg Ions in liquid helium-4
67.40.Kh Thermodynamic properties
67.40.Mj First sound
67.40.Pm Transport processes, second and other sounds, and thermal counterflow; Kapitza resistance
67.40.Rp Films and weak link transport
67.40.Vs Vortices and turbulence
67.40.Yv Impurities and other defects
67.55.-s Normal phase of liquid helium-3
67.55.Cx Thermodynamic properties
67.55.Fa Hydrodynamics
67.55.Hc Transport properties
67.55.Ig Ions in normal liquid helium-3
67.55.Jd Collective modes
67.55.Lf Impurities
67.57.-z Superfluid phase of liquid helium-3
67.57.Bc Thermodynamic properties
67.57.De Superflow and hydrodynamics
67.57.Fg Textures and vortices
67.57.Gh Ions in superfluid helium-3
67.57.Hi Transport properties
67.57.Jj Collective modes
67.57.Lm Spin dynamics
67.57.Np Behavior near interfaces
67.57.Pq Impurities
67.60.-g Mixed systems; liquid helium-3, helium-4 mixtures
67.60.Dm He I - helium-3
67.60.Fp He II - helium-3
67.60.Hr Dilute superfluid helium-3 in He II
67.60.Js Ions in liquid helium-3, helium-4 mixtures
67.65.+z Spin-polarized hydrogen and helium
67.70.+n Films (including physical adsorption)
67.80.-s Solid helium and related quantum crystals
67.80.Cx Structure, lattice dynamics, and sound propagation
67.80.Gb Thermal properties
67.80.Jd Magnetic properties and nuclear magnetic resonance
67.80.Mg Defects, impurities, and diffusion
67.90.+z Other topics in quantum fluids and solids; liquid and solid helium
68. Surfaces and Interfaces; Thin Films and Whiskers (structure and nonelectronic properties)
68.10.-m Fluid surfaces and fluid-fluid interfaces
68.10.Cr Surface energy (surface tension, interface tension, angle of contact, etc.)
68.10.Et Interface elasticity, viscosity, and viscoelasticity
68.10.Gw Interface activity, spreading
68.10.Jy Kinetics (evaporation, adsorption, condensation, catalysis, etc.) (see also 82.65 Surface and interface chemistry)
68.15.+e Liquid thin films
68.18.+p Langmuir-Blodgett films (for methods of film deposition, see 81.15.L)
68.35.-p Solid surfaces and solid-solid interfaces
68.35.Bs Surface structure and topography
68.35.Ct Interface structure and roughness
68.35.Dv Composition; defects and impurities
68.35.Fx Diffusion; interface formation (see also 66.30 Diffusion in solids)
68.35.Gy Mechanical and acoustical properties; adhesion
68.35.Ja Surface and interface dynamics vibrations
68.35.Md Surface energy; thermodynamic properties (see also 82.65.D Thermodynamics of surfaces and interfaces)
68.35.Rh Phase transitions and critical phenomena
68.35.Wm Other nonelectronic properties
68.45.-v Solid-fluid interfaces
68.45.Da Adsorption and desorption kinetics; evaporation and condensation (for chemisorption, see 82.65.M)
68.45.Gd Wetting
68.45.Kg Dynamics; vibrations
68.45.Nj Mechanical and acoustical properties
68.45.Ws Other nonelectronic properties
68.55.-a Thin film structure and morphology (for methods of thin film deposition, film growth and epitaxy, see 81.15)
68.55.Jk Structure and morphology; thickness
68.55.Ln Defects and impurities: doping, implantation, distribution, concentration, etc. (for diffusion of impurities, see 66.30)
68.55.Nq Composition and phase identification
68.60.-p Physical properties of thin films, nonelectronic
68.60.Bs Mechanical and acoustical properties
68.60.Dv Thermal stability; thermal effects
68.60.Wm Other nonelectronic physical properties
68.65.+g Low-dimensional structure (superlattices, quantum well structures, multilayers): structure, and nonelectronic properties
68.70.+w Whiskers and dendrites (growth, structure, and nonelectronic properties)
68.90.+g Other topics in structure, and nonelectronic properties of surfaces and interfaces; thin films and whiskers

1996 PACS, 70. - 79.

70. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES
71. Electronic Structure (see also 73.20 Surface and interface electron states)
71.10.-w Theories and models of many electron systems
71.10.Ay Fermi-liquid theory and other phenomenological models
71.10.Ca Electron gas, Fermi gas
71.10.Fd Lattice fermion models (Hubbard model, etc.)
71.10.Hf Non-Fermi-liquid ground states, electron phase diagrams and phase transitions in model systems
71.10.Li Excited states and pairing interactions in model systems
71.10.Pm Fermions in reduced dimensions (anyons, composite fermions, Luttinger liquid, etc.) (for anyon mechanism in superconductors, see 74.20.M)
71.15.-m Methods of electronic structure calculations
71.15.Ap Plane-wave methods (including augmented plane-wave method)
71.15.Cr Scattering methods
71.15.Fv Atomic- and molecular-orbital methods (including tight binding approximation, valence-band method, etc.)
71.15.Hx Pseudopotential method
71.15.La Atomic sphere approximation methods
71.15.Mb Density functional theory, local density approximation
71.15.Nc Total energy and cohesive energy calculations
71.15.Pd Molecular dynamics calculations (Car-Parrinello) and other numerical simulations
71.15.Rf Relativistic effects
71.15.Th Other methods
71.18.+y Fermi surface: calculations and measurements; effective mass, g factor
71.20.-b Electron density of states and band structure of crystalline solids (for electronic structure of superconductors, see 74.25.J)
71.20.Be Transition metals and alloys
71.20.Dg Alkali and alkaline earth metals
71.20.Eh Rare earth metals and alloys
71.20.Gj Other metals and alloys
71.20.Lp Intermetallic compounds
71.20.Mq Elemental semiconductors
71.20.Nr Semiconductor compounds
71.20.Ps Other inorganic compounds
71.20.Rv Polymers and organic compounds
71.20.Tx Fullerenes and related materials; intercalation compounds
71.22.+i Electronic structure of liquid metals and semiconductors and their alloys
71.23.-k Electronic structure of disordered solids
71.23.An Theories and models; localized states
71.23.Cq Amorphous semiconductors, metallic glasses, glasses
71.23.Ft Quasicrystals
71.24.+q Electronic structure of clusters and nanoparticles
71.27.+a Strongly correlated electron systems; heavy fermions
71.28.+d Narrow-band systems; intermediate-valence solids (for magnetic aspects, see 75.20.H and 75.30.M)
71.30.+h Metal-insulator transitions and other electronic transitions
71.35.-y Excitons and related phenomena
71.35.Aa Frenkel excitons and self-trapped excitons
71.35.Cc Intrinsic properties of excitons; optical absorption spectra
71.35.Ee Electron-hole drops and electron-hole plasma
71.35.Gg Exciton-mediated interactions
71.35.Ji Excitons in magnetic fields; magnetoexcitons
71.35.Lk Collective effects (Bose effects, phase space filling, and excitonic phase transitions)
71.36.+c Polaritons (including photon-phonon and photon-magnon interactions)
71.38.+i Polarons and electron-phonon interactions (see also 63.20.K Phonon- electron interactions in lattices)
71.45.-d Collective effects
71.45.Gm Exchange, correlation, dielectric and magnetic functions, plasmons
71.45.Lr Charge-density-wave systems (see also 75.30.F Spin-density waves)
71.55.-i Impurity and defect levels
71.55.Ak Metals, semimetals, and alloys
71.55.Cn Elemental semiconductors
71.55.Eq III-V semiconductors
71.55.Gs II-VI semiconductors
71.55.Ht Other nonmetals
71.55.Jv Disordered structures; amorphous and glassy solids
71.60.+z Positron states (see also 78.70.B Positron annihilation)
71.70.-d Level splitting and interactions (see also 73.20 Surface and interface electron states, 75.30.E Exchange and superexchange interactions)
71.70.Ch Crystal and ligand fields
71.70.Di Landau levels
71.70.Ej Spin-orbit coupling, Zeeman and Stark splitting
71.70.Fk Strain-induced splitting
71.70.Gm Exchange interactions
71.70.Jp Nuclear states and interactions
71.70.Ms Other bulk localized states and interactions (for surface states, see 73.20)
71.90.+q Other topics in electronic structure
72. Electronic Transport in Condensed Matter (for electronic transport in surfaces, interfaces, and thin films, see 73; for thermal conduction in nonmetallic liquids, see 66.60; for electrical properties related to treatment conditions, see 81.40.R)
72.10.-d Theory of electronic transport; scattering mechanisms
72.10.Bg General formulation of transport theory
72.10.Di Scattering by phonons, magnons, and other nonlocalized excitations (see also 71.45 Collective effects)
72.10.Fk Scattering by point defects, dislocations, surfaces, and other imperfections (including Kondo effect)
72.15.-v Electronic conduction in metals and alloys
72.15.Cz Electrical and thermal conduction in amorphous and liquid metals and alloys
72.15.Eb Electrical and thermal conduction in crystalline metals and alloys
72.15.Gd Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects
72.15.Jf Thermoelectric and thermomagnetic effects
72.15.Lh Relaxation times and mean free paths
72.15.Nj Collective modes (e.g., in one-dimensional conductors)
72.15.Qm Scattering mechanisms and Kondo effect (see also 75.20.H Local moments in compounds and alloys)
72.15.Rn Quantum localization
72.20.-i Conductivity phenomena in semiconductors and insulators (see also 66.70 Nonelectronic thermal conduction in nonmetallic solids)
72.20.Dp General theory, scattering mechanisms
72.20.Fr Low-field transport and mobility; piezoresistance
72.20.Ht High-field and nonlinear effects
72.20.Jv Charge carriers: generation, recombination, lifetime, and trapping
72.20.My Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects
72.20.Pa Thermoelectric and thermomagnetic effects
72.30.+q High-frequency effects; plasma effects
72.40.+w Photoconduction and photovoltaic effects
72.50.+b Acoustoelectric effects
72.55.+s Magnetoacoustic effects (see also 75.80 Magnetomechanical effects)
72.60.+g Mixed conductivity and conductivity transitions
72.70.+m Noise processes and phenomena
72.80.-r Conductivity of specific materials (for conductivity of metals and alloys, see 72.15)
72.80.Cw Elemental semiconductors
72.80.Ey III-V and II-VI semiconductors
72.80.Ga Transition-metal compounds
72.80.Jc Other crystalline inorganic semiconductors
72.80.Le Polymers; organic compounds (including organic semiconductors)
72.80.Ng Disordered solids
72.80.Ph Liquid semiconductors
72.80.Rj Fullerenes and related materials
72.80.Sk Insulators
72.80.Tm Composite materials
72.90.+y Other topics in electronic transport in condensed matter
73. Electronic Structure and Electrical Properties of Surfaces, Interfaces, and Thin Films (for electronic structure and electrical properties of superconducting films, see 74.25 and 74.76)
73.20.-r Surface and interface electron states
73.20.At Surface states, band structure, electron density of states
73.20.Dx Electron states in low-dimensional structures (superlattices, quantum well structures and multilayers)
73.20.Fz Weak localization effects (e.g., quantized states)
73.20.Hb Impurity and defect levels; energy states of adsorbed species
73.20.Jc Delocalization processes
73.20.Mf Collective excitations (including plasmons and other charge-density excitations)
73.23.-b Mesoscopic systems
73.23.Ad Ballistic transport
73.23.Hk Coulomb blockade; single-electron tunneling
73.23.Ps Other electronic properties of mesoscopic systems
73.25.+i Surface conductivity and carrier phenomena
73.30.+y Surface double layers, Schottky barriers, and work functions
73.40.-c Electronic transport in interface structures
73.40.Cg Contact resistance, contact potential
73.40.Ei Rectification
73.40.Gk Tunneling
73.40.Hm Quantum Hall effect (integer and fractional)
73.40.Jn Metal-to-metal contacts
73.40.Kp III-V semiconductor-to-semiconductor contacts, p-n junctions, and heterojunctions
73.40.Lq Other semiconductor-to-semiconductor contacts, p-n junctions, and heterojunctions
73.40.Mr Semiconductor-electrolyte contacts
73.40.Ns Metal-nonmetal contacts
73.40.Qv Metal-insulator-semiconductor structures (including semiconductor- to-insulator)
73.40.Rw Metal-insulator-metal structures
73.40.Sx Metal-semiconductor-metal structures
73.40.Ty Semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor structures
73.40.Vz Semiconductor-metal-semiconductor structures
73.50.-h Electronic transport phenomena in thin films
73.50.Bk General theory, scattering mechanisms
73.50.Dn Low-field transport and mobility; piezoresistance
73.50.Fq High-field and nonlinear effects
73.50.Gr Charge carriers: generation, recombination, lifetime, trapping, mean free paths
73.50.Jt Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects (including thermomagnetic effects)
73.50.Lw Thermoelectric effects
73.50.Mx High-frequency effects; plasma effects
73.50.Pz Photoconduction and photovoltaic effects
73.50.Rb Acoustoelectric and magnetoacoustic effects
73.50.Td Noise processes and phenomena
73.50.Yg Other thin film transport-related topics
73.61.-r Electrical properties of specific thin films and layer structures (multilayers, superlattices, quantum wells, wires, and dots) (for optical properties of thin films, see 78.20 and 78.66; for magnetic properties of thin films, see 75.70)
73.61.At Metal and metallic alloys
73.61.Cw Elemental semiconductors
73.61.Ey III-V semiconductors
73.61.Ga II-VI semiconductors
73.61.Jc Amorphous semiconductors; glasses
73.61.Le Other inorganic semiconductors
73.61.Ng Insulators
73.61.Ph Polymers; organic compounds
73.61.Tm Nanocrystalline materials
73.61.Wp Fullerenes
73.90.+f Other topics in electronic structure and electrical properties of surfaces, interfaces, and thin films
74. Superconductivity
74.10.+v Occurrence, potential candidates
74.20.-z Theories and models of superconducting state
74.20.De Phenomenological theories (two-fluid, Ginzburg-Landau, etc.)
74.20.Fg BCS theory and its development
74.20.Mn Nonconventional mechanisms (spin fluctuations, polarons, and bipolarons, resonating valence bond model, anyon mechanism, marginal Fermi liquid, Luttinger liquid, etc.)
74.25.-q General properties; correlations between physical properties in normal and superconducting states
74.25.Bt Thermodynamic properties
74.25.Dw Superconductivity phase diagrams
74.25.Fy Transport properties (electric and thermal conductivity, thermoelectric effects, etc.)
74.25.Gz Optical properties
74.25.Ha Magnetic properties
74.25.Jb Electronic structure
74.25.Kc Phonons
74.25.Ld Mechanical and acoustical properties, elasticity, and ultrasonic attenuation
74.25.Nf Response to electromagnetic fields (nuclear magnetic resonance, surface impedance, etc.)
74.40.+k Fluctuations (noise, chaos, nonequilibrium superconductivity, localization, etc.)
74.50.+r Proximity effects, weak links, tunneling phenomena, and Josephson effects
74.55.+h Type-I superconductivity
74.60.-w Type-II superconductivity
74.60.Ec Mixed state, critical fields, and surface sheath
74.60.Ge Flux pinning; flux creep, and flux-line lattice dynamics
74.60.Jg Critical currents
74.62.-c Transition temperature variations
74.62.Bf Effects of material synthesis, crystal structure, and chemical composition
74.62.Dh Effects of crystal defects, doping and substitution
74.62.Fj Pressure effects
74.62.Yb Other effects
74.70.-b Superconducting materials (excluding high-T sub c compounds)
74.70.Ad Metals; alloys and compounds: A15, C15, Chevrel and Laves phases (Nb- based alloys, carbides, nitrides, ternary molybdenum chalcogenides, etc.)
74.70.Kn Organic superconductors
74.70.Tx Heavy-fermion superconductors
74.70.Wz Fullerenes and related materials
74.72.-h High-T sub c compounds
74.72.Bk Y-based cuprates
74.72.Dn La-based cuprates
74.72.Fq Tl-based cuprates
74.72.Gr Hg-base cuprates
74.72.Hs Bi-based cuprates
74.72.Jt Other cuprates
74.72.Ny Quaternary and multinary borocarbides
74.72.Yg Other compounds
74.76.-w Superconducting films
74.76.Bz High-T sub c films
74.76.Db Other superconducting films
74.80.-g Spatially inhomogeneous structures
74.80.Bj Granular, melt-textured, and amorphous superconductors; powders
74.80.Dm Superconducting layer structures: superlattices, heterojunctions, and multilayers
74.80.Fp Point contacts; SN and SNS junctions
74.90.+n Other topics in superconductivity
75. Magnetic Properties and Materials (see also 81.40.R Magnetic properties related to materials treatment; for magnetic properties of rocks and minerals, see 91.60.P)
75.10.-b General theory and models of magnetic ordering (see also 05.50 Ising problems)
75.10.Dg Crystal-field theory and spin Hamiltonians
75.10.Hk Classical spin models
75.10.Jm Quantized spin models
75.10.Lp Band and itinerant models
75.10.Nr Spin-glass and other random models
75.20.-g Diamagnetism and paramagnetism
75.20.Ck Nonmetals
75.20.En Metals and alloys
75.20.Hr Local moment in compounds and alloys; Kondo effect, valence fluctuations, heavy fermions (see also 72.15.Q Scattering mechanisms and Kondo effect in electronic transport)
75.25.+z Spin arrangements in magnetically ordered materials (including neutron and spin-polarized electron studies, synchrotron-source x-ray scattering, etc.)
75.30.-m Intrinsic properties of magnetically ordered materials (for critical point effects, see 75.40)
75.30.Cr Saturation moments and magnetic susceptibilities
75.30.Ds Spin waves (see also 76.50 Spin-wave resonance in magnetic resonances and relaxation)
75.30.Et Exchange and superexchange interactions (see also 71.70 Level splitting and interactions in electron states)
75.30.Fv Spin-density waves
75.30.Gw Magnetic anisotropy
75.30.Hx Magnetic impurity interactions
75.30.Kz Magnetic phase boundaries (including magnetic transitions, metamagnetism, etc.)
75.30.Mb Valence fluctuation, Kondo lattice, and heavy-fermion phenomena (for heavy fermion solids, see 71.28)
75.30.Pd Surface magnetism
75.30.Sg Magnetocaloric effect
75.40.-s Critical-point effects, specific heats, short-range order (see also 65.40 Heat capacities)
75.40.Cx Static properties (order parameter, static susceptibility, heat capacities, critical exponents, etc.)
75.40.Gb Dynamic properties (dynamic susceptibility, spin waves, spin diffusion, dynamic scaling, etc.)
75.40.Mg Numerical simulation studies
75.45.+j Macroscopic quantum phenomena in magnetic systems
75.50.-y Studies of specific magnetic materials
75.50.Bb Fe and its alloys
75.50.Cc Other ferromagnetic metals and alloys
75.50.Dd Nonmetallic ferromagnetic materials
75.50.Ee Antiferromagnetics
75.50.Gg Ferrimagnetics
75.50.Kj Amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic materials; quasicrystals
75.50.Lk Spin glasses and other random magnets
75.50.Mm Magnetic liquids
75.50.Pp Magnetic semiconductors
75.50.Ss Magnetic recording materials (see also 85.70 Magnetic devices)
75.50.Tt Fine-particle systems
75.50.Vv High coercivity materials
75.50.Ww Permanent magnets
75.60.-d Domain effects, magnetization curves, and hysteresis
75.60.Ch Domain walls and domain structure (for magnetic bubbles, see 75.70.K)
75.60.Ej Magnetization curves, hysteresis, Barkhausen and related effects
75.60.Lr Magnetic aftereffects
75.60.Nt Magnetic annealing and temperature-hysteresis effects
75.70.-i Magnetic films and multilayers
75.70.Ak Magnetic properties of monolayers and thin films
75.70.Cn Interfacial magnetic properties (multilayers, magnetic quantum wells, superlattices, magnetic heterotructures)
75.70.Kw Domain structure (including magnetic bubbles)
75.70.Pa Giant magnetoresistance
75.80.+q Magnetomechanical and magnetoelectric effects, magnetostriction
75.90.+w Other topics in magnetic properties and materials
76. Magnetic Resonances and Relaxations in Condensed Matter; Mossbauer effect
76.20.+q General theory of resonances and relaxations
76.30.-v Electron paramagnetic resonance and relaxation
76.30.Da Ions and impurities: general
76.30.Fc Iron group (3d) ions and impurities (Ti-Cu)
76.30.He Platinum and palladium group (4d and 5d) ions and impurities (Zr-Ag and Hf-Au)
76.30.Kg Rare-earth ions and impurities
76.30.Lh Other ions and impurities
76.30.Mi Color centers and other defects
76.30.Pk Conduction electrons
76.30.Rn Free radicals
76.40.+b Diamagnetic and cyclotron resonances
76.50.+g Ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and ferrimagnetic resonances; spin- wave resonance (see also 75.30.D Spin waves in magnetic properties and materials)
76.60.-k Nuclear magnetic resonance and relaxation
76.60.Cq Chemical and Knight shifts
76.60.Es Relaxation effects
76.60.Gv Quadrupole resonance
76.60.Jx Effects of internal magnetic fields
76.60.Lz Spin echoes
76.60.Pc NMR imaging
(for medical NMR imaging, see 87.59.P)
76.70.-r Magnetic double resonances and cross effects
76.70.Dx Electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), electron double resonance (ELDOR)
76.70.Fz Double nuclear magnetic resonance (DNMR), dynamical nuclear polarization
76.70.Hb Optical detected magnetic resonance (ODMR)
76.75.+i Muon spin rotation and relaxation
76.80.+y Mossbauer effect; other gamma-ray spectroscopy
76.90.+d Other topics in magnetic resonances and relaxation
77. Dielectrics, Piezoelectrics, and Ferroelectrics and their Properties (for conductivity phenomena, see 72.20 and 72.80)
77.22.-d Dielectric properties of solids and liquids
77.22.Ch Permittivity (dielectric function)
77.22.Ej Polarization and deplorization
77.22.Gm Dielectric loss and relaxation
77.22.Jp Dielectric breakdown and space-charge effects
77.55.+f Dielectric thin films
77.65.-j Piezoelectricity and electrostriction
77.65.Bn Piezoelectric and electrostrictive constants
77.65.Dq Acoustoelectric effects and surface acoustic waves (SAW) in piezoelectrics (see also 43.35.P Surface waves in solids and liquids in acoustics appendix; for surface acoustic wave transducers, see 43.38.R in acoustics appendix)
77.65.Fs Electromechanical resonance; quartz resonators
77.65.Ly Strain-induced piezoelectric fields
77.70.+a Pyroelectric and electrocaloric effects
77.80.-e Ferroelectricity and antiferroelectricity
77.80.Bh Phase transitions and Curie point
77.80.Dj Domain structure; hysteresis
77.80.Fm Switching phenomena
77.84.-s Dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric materials
77.84.Bw Elements, oxides, nitrides, borides, carbides, chalcogenides, etc.
77.84.Dy Niobates, titanates, tantalates, PZT ceramics, etc.
77.84.Fa KDP- and TGS-type crystals
77.84.Jd Polymers; organic compounds
77.84.Lf Composite materials
77.84.Nh Liquids, emulsions, and suspensions; liquid crystals
77.90.+k Other topics in dielectrics, piezoelectrics, and ferroelectrics and their properties
78. Optical Properties, Condensed-matter Spectroscopy and Other Interactions of Radiation and Particles with Condensed Matter
78.20.-e Optical properties of bulk materials and thin films (for optical properties related to materials treatment, see 81.40.T; for optical materials, see 42.70; for optical properties of rocks and minerals, see 91.60.M)
78.20.Bh Theory, models, and numerical simulation
78.20.Ci Optical constants: refractive index, complex dielectric constant, absorption, reflection and transmission coefficients, emissivity
78.20.Ek Optical activity
78.20.Fm Birefringence
78.20.Hp Piezo-, elasto-, acoustooptical, and photoacoustic effects
78.20.Jq Electrooptical effects
78.20.Ls Magnetooptical effects
78.20.Nv Thermooptical and photothermal effects
78.20.Wc Other optical properties
78.30.-j Infrared and Raman spectra (for vibrational states in crystals and disordered systems, see 63.20 and 63.50, respectively)
78.30.Am Elemental semiconductors and insulators
78.30.Cp Liquids
78.30.Er Solid metals and alloys
78.30.Fs III-V and II-VI semiconductors
78.30.Hv Other nonmetallic inorganics
78.30.Jw Organic solids, polymers
78.30.Ly Disordered solids
78.30.Na Fullerenes and related materials
78.35.+c Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering; other light scattering (for Raman scattering, see 78.30)
78.40.-q Absorption and reflection spectra; visible and ultraviolet (for infrared spectra, see 78.30)
78.40.Dw Liquids
78.40.Fy Semiconductors
78.40.Ha Other nonmetallic inorganics
78.40.Kc Metals, semimetals, and alloys
78.40.Me Organic solids and polymers
78.40.Pg Disordered solids
78.40.Ri Fullerenes and related materials
78.45.+h Stimulated emission (see also 42.55 Lasers)
78.47.+p Time-resolved optical spectroscopies and other ultrafast optical measurements in condensed matter (see also 42.65.R - in nonlinear optics)
78.55.-m Photoluminescence
78.55.Ap Elemental semiconductors
78.55.Bq Liquids
78.55.Cr III-V semiconductors
78.55.Et II-VI semiconductors
78.55.Fv Solid alkali halides
78.55.Hx Other solid inorganic materials
78.55.Kz Solid organic materials
78.55.Mb Porous materials
78.60.-b Other luminescence and radiative recombination
78.60.Fi Electroluminescence
78.60.Hk Cathodoluminescence, ionoluminescence
78.60.Kn Thermoluminescence
78.60.Mq Sonoluminescence, triboluminescence
78.60.Ps Chemiluminescence (see also 82.40.T Chemiluminescence and chemical laser kinetics)
78.60.Ya Other luminescence (including radiation-induced)
78.66.-w Optical properties of specific thin films, surfaces, and low-dimensional structures: superlattices, quantum well structures, multilayers, and microparticles
78.66.Bz Metals and metallic alloys
78.66.Db Elemental semiconductors and insulators
78.66.Fd III-V semiconductors
78.66.Hf II-VI semiconductors
78.66.Jg Amorphous semiconductors; glasses; nanocrystalline materials
78.66.Li Other semiconductors
78.66.Nk Insulators
78.66.Qn Polymers; organic compounds
78.66.Sq Composite materials
78.66.Tr Fullerenes and related materials
78.66.Vs Microparticles
78.70.-g Interactions of particles and radiation with matter
78.70.Bj Positron annihilation (see also 71.60 Positron states)
78.70.Ck X-ray scattering
78.70.Dm X-ray absorption spectra
78.70.En X-ray emission spectra and fluorescence
78.70.Gq Microwave and radio-frequency interactions
78.70.Nx Neutron inelastic scattering
78.90.+t Other topics in optical properties, condensed matter spectroscopy and other interactions of particles and radiation with condensed matter
79. Electron and Ion Emission by Liquids and Solids; Impact Phenomena
79.20.-m Impact phenomena (including electron spectra and sputtering) (see also 61.80 Radiation damage and other structural irradiation effects)
79.20.Ap Theory of impact phenomena; numerical simulation
79.20.Ds Laser-beam impact phenomena
79.20.Fv Electron impact: Auger emission
79.20.Hx Electron impact: secondary emission
79.20.Kz Other electron-impact emission phenomena
79.20.La Photon- and electron-stimulated desorption
79.20.Mb Positron emission
79.20.Rf Atomic, molecular, and ion beam impact and interactions with surfaces
79.40.+z Thermionic emission
79.60.-i Photoemission and photoelectron spectra
79.60.Bm Clean metal, semiconductor, and insulator surfaces
79.60.Dp Adsorbed layers and thin films
79.60.Fr Polymers; organic compounds
79.60.Ht Disordered structures
79.60.Jv Interfaces; heterostructures; nanostructures
79.70.+q Field emission, ionization, evaporation, and desorption
79.75.+g Exoelectron emission
79.90.+b Other topics in electron and ion emission by liquids and solids and impact phenomena

1996 PACS, 80. - 89.

80. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
81. Materials Science
81.05.-t Specific materials: fabrication, treatment, testing and analysis
81.05.Bx Metals, semimetals, and alloys
81.05.Cy Elemental semiconductors
81.05.Dz II-VI semiconductors
81.05.Ea III-V semiconductors
81.05.Gc Amorphous semiconductors
81.05.Hd Other semiconductors
81.05.Je Ceramics and refractories (including borides, carbides, hydrides, nitrides, oxides, and silicides)
81.05.Kf Glasses (including metallic glasses)
81.05.Lg Polymers and plastics; rubber; synthetic and natural fibers; organometallic and organic materials
81.05.Mh Cermets, ceramic and refractory composites
81.05.Ni Dispersion-, fiber-, and platelet-reinforced metal-based composites
81.05.Pj Glass-based composites, vitroceramics
81.05.Qk Reinforced polymers and polymer-based composites
81.05.Rm Porous materials; granular materials
81.05.Tp Fullerenes and related materials; diamonds, graphite
81.05.Ys Nanophase materials
81.05.Zx New materials: theory, design, and fabrication
81.10.-h Methods of crystal growth; physics of crystal growth (for crystal structure, see 61)
81.10.Aj Theory and models of crystal growth; physics of crystal growth, crystal morphology and orientation
81.10.Bk Growth from vapor
81.10.Dn Growth from solutions
81.10.Fq Growth from melts; zone melting and refining
81.10.Jt Growth from solid phases (including multiphase diffusion and recrystallization)
81.10.Mx Growth in microgravity environments
81.15.-z Methods of deposition of films and coatings; film growth and epitaxy (for structure of thin films, see 68.55; see also 85.40.S Deposition technology)
81.15.Cd Deposition by sputtering
81.15.Ef Vacuum deposition
81.15.Fg Laser deposition
81.15.Gh Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, etc.) 81.15.Hi Molecular, atomic, ion, and chemical beam epitaxy
81.15.Jj Ion and electron beam-assisted deposition; ion plating
81.15.Kk Vapor phase epitaxy
81.15.Lm Liquid phase epitaxy; deposition from liquid phases (melts, solutions, and surface layers on liquids)
81.15.Np Solid phase epitaxy; growth from solid phases
81.15.Pq Electrodeposition, electroplating
81.15.Rs Spray coating techniques
81.15.Tv Other methods of film growth and epitaxy
81.20.-n Methods of materials synthesis and materials processing (for ion implantation and doping, see 61.72)
81.20.Ev Powder processing; powder metallurgy, compaction, sintering, mechanical alloying, and granulation
81.20.Fw Sol-gel processing, precipitation
81.20.Hy Forming; molding, extrusion, etc.
81.20.Ka Chemical synthesis; combustion synthesis
81.20.Rg Aerosols in materials synthesis and processing
81.20.Vj Joining; welding
81.20.Wk Machining, milling
81.20.Ym Purification
81.20.Zx Other methods of materials synthesis and materials processing
81.30.-t Phase diagrams and microstructures developed by solidification and solid-solid phase transformations (see also 64.70 and 64.80-in equations of state, phase equilibria and phase transitions)
81.30.Bx Phase diagrams of metals and alloys
81.30.Dz Phase diagrams of other materials (for phase diagrams of superconductors, see 74.25.D)
81.30.Fb Solidification
81.30.Hd Constant-composition solid-solid phase transformations: polymorphic, massive, and order-disorder
81.30.Kf Martensitic transformations
81.30.Mh Solid-phase precipitation
(see also 64.75 Solubility, segregation, and mixing; phase separation)
81.40.-z Treatment of materials and its effects on microstructure and properties
81.40.Cd Solid solution hardening, precipitation hardening, and dispersion hardening; aging
81.40.Ef Cold working, work hardening; annealing, post-deformation annealing, quenching, tempering recovery, and crystallization
81.40.Gh Other heat and thermomechanical treatments
81.40.Jj Elasticity and anelasticity, stress-strain relations
81.40.Lm Deformation, plasticity, and creep (see also 62.20.F and 62.20.H - in mechanical properties of condensed matter, and 83.50 - in rheology)
81.40.Np Fatigue, corrosion fatigue, embrittlement, cracking, fracture and failure
81.40.Pq Friction, lubrication, and wear (see also 46.30.P - in structural mechanics)
81.40.Rs Electrical and magnetic properties (related to treatment conditions) (see also 72.80, 73.61, and 75.50 - in physics of condensed matter)
81.40.Tv Optical and dielectric properties (related to treatment conditions)
81.40.Vw Pressure treatment
(see also 62.50.P High-pressure and shock-wave effects in solids and liquids)
81.40.Wx Radiation treatment (particle and electromagnetic) (see also 61.80 Physical radiation effects, radiation damage)
81.65.-b Surface treatments (see also 85.40 Microelectronics: LSI, VLSI, ULSI; integrated circuit fabrication technology)
81.65.Cf Surface cleaning, etching, patterning
81.65.Kn Corrosion protection
81.65.Lp Surface hardening: nitridation, carburization, carbonitridation
81.65.Mq Oxidation
81.65.Ps Polishing
81.65.Rv Passivation
81.65.Tx Gettering
81.65.Ya Other surface treatments
81.70.-q Methods of materials testing and analysis (for specific chemical analysis methods, see 82.80)
81.70.Bt Mechanical testing, impact tests, static and dynamic loads
81.70.Cv Nondestructive testing: ultrasonic testing, photoacoustic testing
81.70.Ex Nondestructive testing: electromagnetic testing, eddy-current testing
81.70.Fy Nondestructive testing: optical methods
81.70.Ha Testing in microgravity environments
81.70.Jb Chemical composition analysis, chemical depth and dopant profiling
81.70.Pg Thermal analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential thermogravimetric analysis
81.70.Yp Other methods of materials testing and analysis
81.90.+c Other topics in materials science
82. Physical Chemistry (for physical chemistry of solutions of biomolecules, see 87.10.D)
82.20.-w Chemical kinetics
82.20.Db Statistical theories (including transition state)
82.20.Fd Stochastic and trajectory models, other theories and models
82.20.Hf Mechanisms and product distribution
82.20.Kh Potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions (see also 34.20--in atomic and molecular physics)
82.20.Mj Nonequilibrium kinetics
82.20.Pm Rate constants, reaction cross sections, and activation energies
82.20.Rp Energy distribution and transfer; relaxation (see also 31.70.H Time- dependent phenomena - in atomic and molecular physics)
82.20.Tr Kinetic and isotope effects
82.20.Wt Computational modeling; simulation
82.30.-b Specific chemical reactions; reaction mechanisms
82.30.Cf Atom and radical reactions; chain reactions
82.30.Eh Molecule-molecule reactions
82.30.Fi Ion-molecule, ion-ion, and charge-transfer reactions (see also 34.70 Charge transfer in atomic and molecular collisions)
82.30.Hk Chemical exchanges (substitution, atom transfer, abstraction, disproportionation, and group exchange)
82.30.Lp Decomposition reactions (pyrolysis, dissociation, and group ejection)
82.30.Nr Association, addition, insertion, cluster formation, hydrogen bonding
82.30.Qt Isomerization and rearrangement
82.30.Vy Homogeneous catalysis (for heterogeneous catalysis at surfaces, see 82.65.J)
82.35.+t Polymer reactions and polymerization
82.40.-g Chemical kinetics and reactions: special regimes and techniques
82.40.Bj Oscillations, chaos, and bifurcations in homogeneous nonequilibrium reactors
82.40.Ck Pattern formation in vortices-diffusion systems
82.40.Dm Atomic and molecular beam reactions
82.40.Fp Shock waves
82.40.Js Fast and ultrafast reactions
82.40.Mw Pulse techniques
82.40.Py Flames, combustion, and explosions
82.40.Ra Plasma reactions (including flowing afterglow and electric discharges) (see also 81.15.G Chemical vapor deposition)
82.40.Tc Chemiluminescence and chemical laser kinetics (78.60.P Chemiluminescence in optical properties of condensed matter)
82.40.We Atmospheric chemistry (see also 94.10.F Atmospheric composition, chemical reactions and processes)
82.45.+z Electrochemistry and electrophoresis (see also 66.10.E Ionic conduction in liquids; for electroosmosis, see 82.65.F; for electrochemical processes biological membranes, see 87.22.F)
82.50.-m Photochemistry and radiation chemistry (for photochemical reactions of biomolecules, see 87.15.R)
82.50.Fv Photolysis, photodissociation, and photoionization by infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiation
82.50.Gw Radiolysis, dissociation, and ionization by x-ray, gamma-ray, and particle radiation
82.55.+e Radiochemistry (including hot atom reactions, positronium and muonium chemistry) (see also 23 Radioactive decay and in-beam spectroscopy)
82.60.-s Chemical thermodynamics (see also 05.70 Thermodynamics)
82.60.Cx Enthalpies of combustion, reaction, and formation
82.60.Fa Heat capacities and heats of phase transitions
82.60.Hc Chemical equilibria and equilibrium constants
82.60.Lf Thermodynamics of solutions
82.60.Nh Thermodynamics of nucleation (see also 64.60.Q Nucleation in equations of state, phase equilibria and phase transitions)
82.65.-i Surface and interface chemistry (see also 68.35.M Surface energy; thermodynamic properties)
82.65.Dp Thermodynamics of surfaces and interfaces
82.65.Fr Film and membrane processes: ion exchange, dialysis, osmosis, electroosmosis
82.65.Jv Heterogeneous catalysis at surfaces (for homogeneous catalysis, see 82.30.V)
82.65.My Chemisorption (see also 68.45 Solid-fluid interfaces)
82.65.Pa Surface-enhanced molecular states and other gas-surface interactions (see also 34.50.D Interactions of atoms, molecules, and their ions with surfaces; photon and electron emission; neutralization of ions)
82.65.Yh Other surface and interface chemical processes
82.70.-y Disperse systems
82.70.Dd Colloids
82.70.Gg Gels and sols
82.70.Kj Emulsions and suspensions
82.70.Rr Aerosols and foams
82.80.-d Chemical analysis and related physical methods of analysis (for related instrumentation, see 07; for biochemical analytic techniques, see 87.64)
82.80.Bg Chromatography
82.80.Ch Ultraviolet, visible, infrared, Raman, microwave, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis methods; spectrophotometry; colorimetry
82.80.Ej X-ray, Mossbauer, and other gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis methods
82.80.Fk Electrochemical methods
82.80.Jp Activation analysis and other radiochemical methods
82.80.Kq Energy-conversion spectro-analytical methods (e.g., photoacoustic, photothermal, and optogalvanic spectroscopic methods)
82.80.Ms Mass spectrometry (including SIMS, multiphoton ionization and resonance ionization mass spectrometry)
82.80.Pv Electron spectroscopy (x-ray photoelectron (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), etc.)
82.80.Sy Methods using colligative properties
82.80.Yc Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and other methods of chemical analysis
82.90.+j Other topics in physical chemistry
83. Rheology (see also 47 Fluid dynamics)
83.10.-y Fundamentals and general
83.10.Bb Kinematics of deformation and flow
83.10.Dd Dynamics of continuous media
83.10.Ff Continuum mechanics
83.10.Hh Flow of solids
83.10.Ji Fluid dynamics (nonlinear fluids)
83.10.Lk Multiphase flows
83.10.Nn Polymer dynamics
83.10.Pp Particle dynamics
83.20.-d Constitutive relations
83.20.Bg Macroscopic (phenomenological) theories
83.20.Di Microscopic (molecular) theories
83.20.Fk Reptation theories
83.20.Hn Structural and phase changes
83.20.Jp Computer simulation
83.20.Lr Boundary conditions
83.50.-v Deformation; material flow
83.50.Ax Steady shear flows
83.50.By Transient deformation and flow; time-dependent properties: start-up, stress relaxation, creep, recovery, etc.
83.50.Cz Injection molding
83.50.Da Compression molding
83.50.Eb Weissenberg effect
83.50.Fc Linear viscoelasticity
83.50.Gd Nonlinear viscoelasticity
83.50.Jf Extensional and combined flows
83.50.Lh Interfacial and free surface flows; slip
83.50.Nj Viscoplasticity; yield stress
83.50.Pk Effects of electric and magnetic fields
83.50.Qm Thixotropy; thickening flows
83.50.Sp Thermorheological properties; non-isothermal rheology
83.50.Tq Wave propagation, shocks, fracture, and crack healing
83.50.Vr Wave speed
83.50.Ws Chaotic flows; drag reduction
83.50.Yt Flows in processing machinery
83.70.-f Material form
83.70.Bi Homogeneous solids
83.70.Dk Composite solids
83.70.Fn Granular solids
83.70.Gp Homogeneous isotropic liquids; solutions and melts
83.70.Hq Heterogeneous liquids: suspensions, dispersions, emulsions, pastes, slurries, foams, block copolymers, etc.
83.70.Jr Liquid crystals: nematic, cholesteric, smectic, discotic, etc.
83.80.-k Material types
83.80.Bp Thermoplastic polymers
83.80.Cq Thermosetting polymers
83.80.Dr Elastomeric polymers
83.80.Es Polymer blends
83.80.Gv Electro- and magnetorheological fluids
83.80.Jx Chemically reactive materials
83.80.Lz Biological materials: blood, collagen, wood, food, etc.
83.80.Nb Geological materials: Earth, magma, ice, rocks, etc.
83.80.Pc Inorganic materials
83.85.-c Techniques and apparatus
83.85.Cg Rheological measurements
83.85.Ei Optical methods; sonography
83.85.Gk Sensors
83.85.Jn Viscosity measurements
83.85.Lq Normal stress measurements
83.85.Ns Data analysis (interconversion of experiments; computation of relaxation and retardation spectra; time-temperature superposition, etc.)
83.85.Pt Flow computation (e.g., finite element) (see also 02.70 - in Mathematical methods in physics)
83.90.+s Other topics in rheology
84. Electronics; Radiowave and Microwave Technology; Direct Energy Conversion and Storage
84.30.-r Electronic circuits (for integrated circuits, see 85.40)
84.30.Bv Circuit theory (including computer-aided circuit design and analysis)
84.30.Jc Power electronics, power supply circuits (see also 84.70 High-current and high-voltage technology)
84.30.Le Amplifiers
84.30.Ng Oscillators, pulse generators, and function generators
84.30.Qi Modulators and demodulators; discriminators, comparators, mixers, limiters, and compressors
84.30.Sk Pulse and digital circuits (for pulse generators, see 84.30.N)
84.30.Vn Filters
84.30.Yq Other electronic circuits
84.32.-y Passive circuit components (see also 07.50 Electrical and electronic components, instruments, and techniques)
84.32.Dd Connectors, relays, and switches
84.32.Ff Conductors, resistors (including thermistors, varistors, and photoresistors)
84.32.Hh Inductors and coils; wiring
84.32.Tt Capacitors
84.32.Vv Fuses
84.35.+i Neural networks (for optical neural networks, see 42.79.T, see also 07.05.M Neural networks, fuzzy logic, artificial intelligence)
84.37.+q Electric variable measurements (including voltage, current resistance, capacitance, inductance, impedance, and admittance, etc.)
84.40.-x Radiowave and microwave propagation (including millimeter wave) technology
84.40.Az Waveguides, transmission lines, striplines
84.40.Ba Antennas: theory, components and accessories (for plasma interactions with antennas, see 52.40.F in Plasma physics)
84.40.Dc Microwave circuits
84.40.Fe Microwave tubes (e.g. klystrons, magnetrons, traveling-wave, backward-wave tubes, etc.)
84.40.Ik Masers; gyrotrons (cyclotron-resonance masers)
84.40.Lj Microwave integrated electronics
84.40.Ua Telecommunications: signal transimssion and processing; communication satellites (for optical communications, see 42.79.S)
84.40.Xb Telemetry: remote control, remote sensing; radar
84.40.Zc Other topics in radiowave and microwave technology
84.47.+w Vacuum tubes (see also 85.45 Vacuum microelectronics)
84.50.+d Electric motors
84.60.-h Direct energy conversion and storage
84.60.Bk Performance characteristics of energy conversion systems; figure of merit
84.60.Dn Electrochemical conversion and storage: electrochemical cells and batteries; fuel cells
84.60.Jt Photoelectric conversion: solar cells and arrays (for solar collectors and concentrators, see 42.79.E)
84.60.Lw Magnetohydrodynamic conversion (for MHD generators, see 52.75.F)
84.60.Ny Thermionic conversion
84.60.Rb Thermoelectric, electrogasdynamic and other direct energy conversion
84.60.Ve Energy storage systems, including capacitor banks
84.70.+p High-current and high-voltage technology: power systems; power transmission lines and cables (including superconducting cables)
84.90.+a Other topics in electronics, radiowave and microwave technology, and direct energy conversion and storage
85. Electronic and Magnetic Devices; Microelectronics
85.25.-j Superconducting devices
85.25.Am Superconducting device characterization, design, and modeling
85.25.Cp Josephson devices
85.25.Dq Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs)
85.25.Hv Superconducting logic elements and memory devices
85.25.Kx Superconducting wires, fibers, and tapes
85.25.Ly Superconducting magnets; magnetic levitation devices (for superconducting cables, see 84.70)
85.25.Na Superconducting microelectronic circuits
85.25.Pb Superconducting infrared, submillimeter and millimeter wave detectors
85.25.Qc Superconducting surface acoustic wave devices and other superconducting devices
85.30.-z Semiconductor devices (for photodiodes and phototransistors, see 85.60.D; for laser diodes, see 42.55.P)
85.30.De Semiconductor-device characterization, design, and modeling
85.30.Fg Bulk semiconductor and conductivity oscillation devices (including Hall effect devices, space-charge-limited devices, and Gunn effect devices)
85.30.Hi Surface barrier, boundary, and point contact devices
85.30.Kk Junction diodes
85.30.Mn Junction breakdown and tunneling devices (including resonance tunneling devices)
85.30.Pq Bipolar transistors
85.30.Rs Thyristors
85.30.St Quantum interference devices
85.30.Tv Field effect devices
85.30.Vw Low-dimensional quantum devices (quantum dots, quantum wires, etc.)
85.30.Wx Single electron devices
85.30.Yy Other semiconductor devices
85.40.-e Microelectronics: LSI, VLSI, ULSI; integrated circuit fabrication technology (see also 85.45 Vacuum microelectronics, 85.30 Semiconductor devices, and 81.65 Surface treatments)
85.40.Bh Computer-aided design of microcircuits; layout and modeling
85.40.Hp Lithography, masks and pattern transfer
85.40.Ls Metallization, contacts, interconnects; device isolation
85.40.Qx Microcircuit quality, noise, performance, and failure analysis
85.40.Ry Impurity doping, diffusion and ion implantation technology
85.40.Sz Deposition technology (for plasma applications in deposition technology, see 52.75.R)
85.40.Ux Nanometer-scale fabrication technology
85.40.Yd Other topics in microelectronics and integrated circuit fabrication technologies
85.45.-w Vacuum microelectronics
85.45.Bz Vacuum microelectronic device characterization, design, and modeling
85.45.Db Field emitter and arrays, cold electron emitters
85.45.Fd Field emission displays (FEDS)
85.45.Yv Other vacuum microelectronic devices
85.50.+k Dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric devices
85.60.-q Optoelectronic devices (see also 42.79 Optical elements, devices and systems)
85.60.Bt Optoelectronic device characterization, design, and modeling
85.60.Dw Photodiodes; phototransistors; photoresistors
85.60.Gz Photodetectors (including infrared and CCD detectors) (for superconducting infrared detectors, see 85.25.P)
85.60.Ha Photomultipliers; phototubes and photocathodes
85.60.Jb Light-emitting devices
85.60.Me Other optoelectronic devices
85.60.Pg Display systems (see also 07.07.H Display and recording equipment, oscilloscopes, TV cameras, etc.)
85.65.+h Molecular electronic devices
85.70.-w Magnetic devices
85.70.Ay Magnetic device characterization, design, and modeling
85.70.Ec Magnetostrictive, magnetoacoustic, and magnetostatic devices (for magnetostrictive transducers, see 43.38.C in acoustics appendix)
85.70.Ge Ferrite and garnet devices
85.70.Kh Magnetic thin-film devices; magnetic heads (magnetoresistive, inductive, etc.); domain-motion devices, etc.
85.70.Li Other magnetic recording and storage devices (including tapes, disks, and drums)
85.70.Rp Magnetic levitation, propulsion and control devices (for superconducting-magnetic levitation devices, see 85.25.L)
85.70.Sq Magnetooptical devices
85.70.Yv Other magnetic devices
85.80.-b Electrochemical, thermoelectromagnetic, and other devices (for acoustoelectric devices, see 43.38)
85.80.Dg Electrochemical devices
85.80.Fi Thermoelectric devices
85.80.Jm Magnetoelectric devices
85.80.Lp Magnetothermal devices
85.90.+h Other topics in electronic and magnetic devices and microelectronics
87. Biological and Medical Physics
87.10.+e General, theoretical, and mathematical biophysics (including logic of biosystems, quantum biology, and relevant aspects of thermodynamics, information theory, cybernetics, and bionics)
87.15.-v Molecular biophysics
87.15.By Structure, bonding, conformation, configuration, and isomerism of biomolecules
87.15.Da Physical chemistry of solutions of biomolecules; condensed states
87.15.He Molecular dynamics and conformational changes
87.15.Kg Molecular interactions
87.15.Mi Spectra, photodissociation, and photoionization of biomolecules; bioluminescence
87.15.Rn Photochemical reactions of biomolecules; biochemical reaction mechanisms and kinetics; enzymatic catalysis; model reactions
87.22.-q Physics of cellular and physiological processes
87.22.As General theory and phenomenology
87.22.Bt Membrane and subcellular physics and structure
87.22.Fy Active transport processes across biological membranes; intracellular electron transport; energy transduction (including photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation)
87.22.Jb Muscle contraction, nerve conduction, synaptic transmission, memorization, and other neurophysiological processes (excluding perception processes and speech)
87.22.Me Enzymatic catalysis
87.22.Nf Mechano- and chemoceptions (including biosonic generation, detection, and guidance)
87.22.Pg Biothermics
87.40.+w Biomagnetism (cardiomagnetism, neuromagnetism, tissue susceptibility) and magnetobiology (magnetic field effects on cellular processes, and on navigation and behavior of various species)
87.45.-k Biomechanics, biorheology, and biological fluid dynamics (see also 83.80.L--in rheology; for rheological properties of biological materials, see 83.50)
87.45.Bp Mechanical properties of tissues and organs
87.45.Dr Physics of body movements
87.45.Ft Rheology of body fluids
87.45.Hw Haemodynamics, pneumodynamics
87.50.-a Biological effects of electromagnetic and particle radiation (see also 28.41.T Protection systems, safety, radiation monitoring, accidents, and dismantling, 28.52.N Safety)
87.50.Gi Ionizing radiations (ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma-rays, ions, electrons, positrons, neutrons, and mesons, etc.)
87.50.Hj Optical radiation (near ultraviolet, visible, and infrared)
87.50.Jk Radiofrequency and microwave radiation (power lines)
87.50.Ln Linear energy transfer (LET)
87.50.Nq Radiation protection (low LET) for diagnostic and therapeutic x-ray energies
87.50.Pr Radiation protection (high LET)
87.51.+e Biological effects of sound and ultrasound; lithotripsy
87.53.-j Ionizing-radiation therapy physics
87.53.Bn Photon dosimetry: theory and algorithms
87.53.Dq Photon dosimetry: measurements
87.53.Fs Electron and positron dosimetry: theory and algorithms
87.53.Hv Electron and positron dosimetry: measurements
87.53.Jw Brachytherapy dosimetry: theory, algorithms, and measurements
87.53.Ly Stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetry: theory, algorithms, and measurements
87.53.Na Radioimmunotherapy dosimetry: theory, algorithms, and measurements
87.53.Pb Proton, neutron, and heavier particle dosimetry: theory and algorithms
87.53.Qc Proton, neutron, and heavier particle dosimetry: measurements
87.53.Rd Microdosimetry
87.53.Tf Treatment planning: algorithms, collimation, verification of alignment, optimization, quality assurance specifications, tissue response factors (TCP and NTCP), etc.
87.54.-n Non-ionizing radiation therapy physics
87.54.Br Thermotherapy (hyperthermia and cryogenic therapy)
87.54.Dt Electrotherapy
87.56.-v Radiation therapy equipment
87.56.By Radiation generators
87.56.Da Ancillary equipment
87.56.Fc Quality assurance equipment
87.59.-e Medical imaging
87.59.Bh X-ray radiography
87.59.Ci Fluoroscopy
87.59.Dj Angiography
87.59.Ek Mammography
87.59.Fm Computed tomography (CT)
87.59.Hp Digital radiography
87.59.Jq Transmission imaging
87.59.Ls Bone densitometry
87.59.Mt Ultrasonography
87.59.Pw Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
87.59.Qx Nuclear medicine imaging, dosimetry, labeling and metabolic studies: radiopharmaceuticals
87.59.Sz Quantitative scanning
87.59.Ta Single-photon emission computed-tomography (SPECT)
87.59.Vb Positron emission tomography (PET)
87.59.Wc Thermography, visible radiation imaging, and other imaging and diagnostic techniques
87.62.+n Medical imaging equipment
87.64.-t Spectroscopic and microscopic techniques in biophysics and medical physics (for spectrometers, see 07.57.P, 07.57.T, 07.60.R, 07.75 and 07.85.N)
87.64.Bx Electron, neutron and x-ray diffraction and scattering
87.64.Dz Electron microscopy; scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy
87.64.Fb X-ray spectroscopy, EXAFS
87.64.Hd EPR and NMR spectroscopy
87.64.Je Infrared and Raman spectroscopy
87.64.Lg Electron and photoelectron spectroscopy
87.64.Ni Optical absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, and fluorescence spectroscopy
87.64.Pj Mossbauer spectroscopy
87.65.+y Aerospace bio- and medical physics (effects of accelerations, weightlessness and space environment)
87.80.+s Biophysical instrumentation and techniques
87.90.+y Other topics in biophysics and medical physics
89. Other Areas of Research of General Interest to Physicists
89.20.+a Industrial and technological research and development
89.30.+f Energy resources
89.40.+k Transportation
89.50.+r Urban planning and development
89.60.+x Environmental and ecological studies
89.70.+c Information science
89.80.+h Computer science and technology
89.90.+n Other areas of general interest to physicists

1996 PACS, 90. - 99.

90. GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, AND ASTROPHYSICS
91. Solid Earth Physics
91.10.-v Geodesy and gravity
91.10.By Mathematical geodesy; general theory
91.10.Da Cartography
91.10.Fc Space geodetic surveys
91.10.Jf Topography; geometric observations
91.10.Kg Crustal movements
91.10.Lh Photogrammetry
91.10.Nj Rotational variations; polar wobble
91.10.Qm Harmonics of the gravity potential field
91.10.Rn Rheology of lithosphere and mantle
91.10.Sp Satellite orbits
91.10.Tq Earth tides
91.10.Vr Ocean/Earth/atmosphere interaction
91.10.Ws Reference systems
91.25.-r Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism; geoelectricity
91.25.Cw Origins and models of the magnetic field; dynamo theories
91.25.Dx Archeomagnetism
91.25.Ey Interactions between exterior sources and interior properties
91.25.Ga Spatial variations: all harmonics and anomalies
91.25.Jc Spatial variations attributed to sea floor spreading
91.25.Le Time variations, diurnal to secular
91.25.Mf Reversals
91.25.Ng Paleomagnetism
91.25.Ph Magnetostratigraphy
91.25.Qi Geoelectricity; electromagnetic induction and conductivity (magnetotelluric effects)
91.30.-f Seismology
91.30.Bi Seismic sources (mechanisms, magnitude, moment frequency spectrum)
91.30.Dk Seismicity: space and time distribution
91.30.Fn Surface and body waves
91.30.Ks Free oscillations (periods less than 12 hours)
91.30.Mv Strong motions and shock waves
91.30.Nw Tsunamis (see also 92.10.D and 92.10.F for dynamics of the ocean)
91.30.Px Phenomena related to earthquake prediction
91.30.Rz Explosion seismology
91.30.Tb Volcano seismology
91.30.Vc Continental crust seismology
91.30.Ye Oceanic crust seismology
91.35.-x Earth's interior structure and properties
91.35.Cb Models of interior structure
91.35.Dc Heat flow; geothermy
91.35.Ed Structure of the Earth's interior below the upper mantle
91.35.Gf Structure of the crust and upper mantle
91.35.Lj Composition of Earth's interior
91.35.Nm Geochronology
91.35.Pn Tomography of the Earth's interior (see also 91.30 Seismology)
91.40.-k Volcanology
91.40.Bp Ash deposits
91.40.Dr Atmospheric effects (see also 92.60.M Particles and aerosols--in Meteorology)
91.40.Ft Eruptions
91.40.Hw Lava
91.45.-c Physics of plate tectonics
91.45.Cg Continental margins
91.45.Dh Plate tectonics
91.45.Ei Neotectonics
91.45.Fj Convection currents
91.45.Pt Slow vertical crustal movements (including isostasy and postglacial phenomena)
91.45.Qv Tomography of plate tectonics
91.45.Sx Relations of gravity observations to tectonics and isostasy
91.45.Ty Folds and Folding
91.45.Vz Fractures and faults
91.45.Yb Pluton emplacement
91.50.-r Marine geology and geophysics
91.50.Cw Beach, coastal, and shelf processes
91.50.Ey Ocean bottom processes (for ocean basin thermometry, see 43.30.Q in acoustics appendix)
91.50.Ga Bathymetry and noncoastal underwater morphology
91.50.Jc Turbidity currents, sedimentation (for acoustics of sediments, see 43.30.M in acoustics appendix)
91.60.-x Physical properties of rocks and minerals (for rheological properties of geological materials, see 83.50 and 83.80.N
91.60.Ba Elasticity, fracture, and flow
91.60.Dc Creep and deformation
91.60.Ed Crystal structure and defects
91.60.Fe Equations of state
91.60.Gf High-pressure behavior
91.60.Hg Phase changes
91.60.Ki Thermal properties
91.60.Lj Acoustic properties
91.60.Mk Optical properties
91.60.Pn Magnetic and electric properties
91.65.-n Geophysical aspects of geology, mineralogy, and petrology
91.65.Br Geochemical cycles
91.65.Dt Isotopic composition/chemistry
91.65.Fw Low-temperature geochemistry
91.65.Hy Organic geochemistry
91.65.Nd Trace elements
91.65.Rg Mineral occurrences and deposits
91.65.Ti Sedimentary petrology
91.65.Vj Major element composition
91.70.-c Information related to geologic time
91.70.Bf Cenozoic
91.70.Dh Mesozoic
91.70.Fj Paleozic
91.70.Hm Precambrian
91.90.+p Other topics in solid Earth physics
92. Hydrospheric and Atmospheric Geophysics
92.10.-c Physics of the oceans (for ocean parameter estimation by acoustical methods, see 43.30.P in acoustics appendix)
92.10.Bf Physical properties of seawater
92.10.Cg Capillary waves
92.10.Dh Dynamics of the deep ocean
92.10.Ei Coriolis effects
92.10.Fj Dynamics of the upper ocean
92.10.Gk El Nino
92.10.Hm Surface waves, tides, and sea level
92.10.Jn Seiches
92.10.Kp Sea-air energy exchange processes
92.10.Lq Turbulence and diffusion
92.10.Mr Thermohaline structure and circulation
92.10.Ns Fine structure and microstructure
92.10.Pt Optical properties of sea water
92.10.Rw Sea ice
92.10.Sx Coastal and estuarine oceanography
92.10.Ty Fronts and jets
92.10.Vz Underwater sound (for acoustical aspects, see 43.30)
92.10.Wa Sediment transport
92.10.Yb Hydrography
92.20.-h Interdisciplinary aspects of oceanography
92.20.Bk Aerosols
92.20.Cm Chemistry of the ocean
92.20.Gr Ocean energy extraction
92.20.Hs Anoxic environments
92.20.Jt Biological aspects of oceanography
92.20.Kv Photochemistry
92.20.Lw Photosynthesis
92.20.Mx Physicochemical properties
92.20.Ny Marine pollution
92.20.Pz Bacteria
92.20.Rb Plankton
92.20.Td Radioactivity
92.40.-t Hydrology and glaciology
92.40.Cy Modeling; general theory
92.40.Ea Precipitation
92.40.Fb Rivers, runoff, and streamflow
92.40.Gc Erosion and sedimentation
92.40.Je Evaporation
92.40.Kf Groundwater
92.40.Lg Soil moisture
92.40.Ni Limnology
92.40.Qk Water quality and water resources
92.40.Rm Snow
92.40.Sn Ice
92.40.Vq Glaciers
92.60.-e Meteorology (see also 43.28 Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound, 42.68 Atmospheric optics, 94.10.D Atmospheric structure, pressure, density, and temperature)
92.60.Bh General circulation
92.60.Dj Gravity waves, tides, and compressional waves
92.60.Ek Convection, turbulence, and diffusion
92.60.Fm Boundary layer structure and processes
92.60.Gn Winds and their effects
92.60.Hp Chemical composition and chemical interactions
92.60.Jq Water in the atmosphere (humidity, clouds, evaporation, precipitation)
92.60.Ls Ionic interactions and processes
92.60.Mt Particles and aerosols (see also 94.20 Physics of the ionosphere)
92.60.Nv Cloud physics
92.60.Pw Atmospheric electricity
92.60.Qx Storms
92.60.Ry Climatology
92.60.Sz Air quality and air pollution
92.60.Ta Interaction of atmosphere with electromagnetic waves; propagation
92.60.Vb Solar radiation
92.60.Wc Weather analysis and prediction
92.70.-j Global change (see also 92.60 Meteorology)
92.70.Cp Atmosphere
92.70.Er Biogeochemical processes
92.70.Gt Climate dynamics
92.70.Jw Oceans
92.70.Ly Water cycles
92.90.+x Other topics in hydrospheric and atmospheric geophysics
93. Geophysical Observations, Instrumentation, and Techniques
93.30.-w Information related to geographical regions
93.30.Bz Africa
93.30.Ca Antarctica
93.30.Db Asia
93.30.Fd Australia
93.30.Ge Europe
93.30.Hf North America
93.30.Jg South America
93.30.Kh Large islands (e.g., Greenland)
93.30.Li Arctic Ocean
93.30.Mj Atlantic Ocean
93.30.Nk Indian Ocean
93.30.Pm Pacific Ocean
93.30.Qn Southern Ocean
93.30.Rp Regional seas
93.30.Sq Polar regions
93.30.Tr Temperate regions
93.30.Vs Tropical regions
93.55.+z International organizations, national and international programs
93.65.+e Data acquisition and storage
93.85.+q Instrumentation and techniques for geophysical research
94. Aeronomy and Magnetospheric Physics
94.10.-s Physics of the neutral atmosphere (for atmospheres of the planets, see 96.35.H)
94.10.Bw General properties of the high atmosphere
94.10.Dy Atmospheric structure, pressure, density, and temperature (stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere) (see also 92.60 Meteorology)
94.10.Fa Atmospheric composition (atomic or molecular), chemical reactions and processes (see also 82.40.W Atmospheric chemistry)
94.10.Gb Absorption and scattering of radiation
94.10.Jd Tides, waves, and winds
94.10.Lf Convection, diffusion, mixing, turbulence, and fallout
94.10.Nh Cosmic dust
94.10.Rk Aurora and airglow
94.20.-y Physics of the ionosphere (for ionospheres of the planets, see 96.35.K; for plasma physics aspects, see 52; for radiowave propagation, see 41.20.J in electromagnetism and 84.40 in electromagnetic technology)
94.20.Bb Wave propagation
94.20.Dd Ionospheric structure (D, E, F, and topside regions) including steady- state ion densities and temperatures
94.20.Ee D region
94.20.Gg E region
94.20.Ji F region
94.20.Kj Polar cap ionosphere
94.20.Lk Topside region
94.20.Mm Plasmasphere
94.20.Pp Plasmapause
94.20.Qq Particle precipitation
94.20.Rr Interactions between waves and particles
94.20.Ss Electric fields
94.20.Tt Ionospheric soundings
94.20.Vv Ionospheric disturbances
94.20.Ww Plasma motion, convection, or circulation
94.20.Yx Interaction between ionosphere and magnetosphere
94.30.-d Physics of the magnetosphere (for magnetospheres of the planets, see 96.35.K; for plasma physics aspects, see 52; for radiowave propagation, see 41.20.J in electromagnetism and 84.40 in electromagnetic technology)
94.30.Bg Magnetic coordinate systems
94.30.Ch Magnetospheric configuration
94.30.Di Magnetopause
94.30.Ej Magnetic tail
94.30.Fk Plasma motion, convection, or circulation
94.30.Gm Plasma instabilities
94.30.Hn Trapped particles
94.30.Jp Ring currents
94.30.Kq Electric fields
94.30.Lr Magnetic storms, substorms
94.30.Ms Magnetic pulsations
94.30.Tz Waves; propagation and excitation
94.30.Va Magnetosheath; interaction with interplanetary space (including solar wind) (for cosmic-ray interactions, see 13.85.T in elementary particle physics; see also 96.40 in solar system)
94.80.+g Instrumentation for aeronomy and magnetospheric studies (see also 95.55 Astronomical and space-research instrumentation)
94.90.+m Other topics in aeronomy and magnetospheric physics
95. Fundamental Astronomy and Astrophysics; Instrumentation, Techniques, and Astronomical Observations
95.10.-a Fundamental astronomy
95.10.Ce Celestial mechanics (including n-body problems) (see also 03.20 Classical mechanics of discrete systems: general mathematical aspects)
95.10.Eg Orbit determination and improvement
95.10.Fh Chaotic dynamics (see also 05.45 Theory and models of chaotic systems)
95.10.Gi Eclipses, transits, and occultations
95.10.Jk Astrometry and reference systems
95.10.Km Ephemerides, almanacs, and calendars
95.30.-k Fundamental aspects of astrophysics
95.30.Cq Elementary particle processes (see also 26 Nuclear astrophysics)
95.30.Dr Atomic processes and interactions (see also 32 Atomic properties and interactions with photons; 34 Atomic and molecular collision processes and interactions)
95.30.Ft Molecular processes and interactions (see also 33 Molecular properties and interactions with photons; 34 Atomic and molecular collision processes and interactions)
95.30.Gv Radiation mechanisms
95.30.Jx Radiative transfer
95.30.Ky Atomic and molecular data, spectra, and spectral parameters (opacities, rotation constants, line identification, oscillator strengths, gf values, transition probabilities, etc.) (see also 32.10, 32.30, 32.70, 33.15, 33.20, and 33.70 in atomic and molecular physics)
95.30.Lz Hydrodynamics
95.30.Qd Magnetohydrodynamics and plasmas
95.30.Sf Relativity and gravitation (see also 04 General relativity and gravitation, 98.80.H Mathematical and relativistic cosmology)
95.30.Tg Thermodynamic processes (see also 05.70 Thermodynamics)
95.35.+d Dark matter (stellar, interstellar, galactic, and cosmological) (see also 95.30.C Elementary particle and nuclear processes; for brown dwarfs, see 97.20.V; for galactic halos see 98.35.G and 98.62.G; for models of the early Universe, see 97.10.F)
95.40.+s Artificial Earth satellites (for lunar and planetary probes, see 95.55.P)
95.45.+i Observatories
95.55.-n Astronomical and space-research instrumentation (see also 07.57, 07.60, 07.75, 07.85 and 07.87--in instruments, 29.40 Radiation detectors, 42.79 Optical elements, devices, and systems, 85.60.G Photodetectors and infrared detectors)
95.55.Aq Charge-coupled devices and image detectors
95.55.Br Astrometric and interferometric instruments
95.55.Cs Ground-based ultraviolet, optical and infrared telescopes
95.55.Ev Solar instruments
95.55.Fw Space-based ultraviolet, optical, and infrared telescopes
95.55.Jz Radio telescopes and instrumentation
95.55.Ka X- and gamma-ray telescopes and instrumentation
95.55.Pe Lunar, planetary, and deep-space probes
95.55.Qf Photometric, polarimetric, and spectroscopic instrumentation
95.55.Sh Auxiliary and recording instruments; clocks and frequency standards
95.55.Vj Neutrino, muon, pion, and other elementary particle detectors; cosmic ray detectors
95.55.Ym Gravitational radiation detectors; mass spectrometers; and other instrumentation and techniques (see also 04.80 Experimental studies of gravity in general relativity and gravitation)
95.75.-z Observation and data reduction techniques; computer modeling and simulation
95.75.De Photography and photometry
95.75.Fg Spectroscopy and spectrophotometry
95.75.Hi Polarimetry
95.75.Kk Interferometry
95.75.Mn Image processing
95.75.Pq Mathematical procedures and computer techniques
95.75.Qr Adaptive and segmented optics (see also 42.68 Atmospheric optics)
95.75.Rs Remote observing techniques
95.75.St Other techniques
95.80.+p Catalogues, atlases, databases, retrieval systems, etc.
95.85.-e Astronomical observations (additional primary heading(s) must be chosen with these entries to represent the astronomical objects and/or properties studied)
95.85.Bh Radio, microwave, and submillimeter
95.85.Gn Far infrared (10 - 300 mu m)
95.85.Hp Infrared (3 - 10 mu m)
95.85.Jq Near infrared (0.75 - 3 mu m)
95.85.Kr Visible (390 - 750 nm)
95.85.Ls Near ultraviolet (300 - 390 nm)
95.85.Mt Ultraviolet (10 - 300 nm)
95.85.Nv X-ray
95.85.Pw Gamma-ray
95.85.Ry Neutrino, muon, pion, and other elementary particles; cosmic rays
95.85.Sz Gravitational radiation, magnetic fields, and other observations
95.90.+v Historical astronomy and archaeoastronomy; and other topics in fundamental astronomy and astrophysics; instrumentation, techniques, and astronomical observations
96. Solar System (for the Earth, see 91-94)
96.10.+i General, solar nebula, and cosmogony
96.20.-n Moon
96.20.Br Origin, formation, and age
96.20.Dt Features, landmarks, mineralogy, petrology, and atmosphere
96.20.Jz Gravitational field, selenodesy, magnetic fields
96.20.Ka Cratering
96.30.-t Planets, their satellites and rings; asteroids (for the Moon, see 96.20; for comets, see 96.50.G)
96.30.Dz Mercury
96.30.Ea Venus
96.30.Gc Mars
96.30.Kf Jupiter
96.30.Mh Saturn
96.30.Pj Uranus
96.30.Rm Neptune
96.30.Sn Pluto
96.30.Wr Planetary rings
96.30.Ys Asteroids (minor planets)
96.35.-j Planetary, asteroid, and satellite characteristics and properties (see also 97.82 for extrasolar planetary systems)
96.35.Cp Origin, formation, evolution, and ages
96.35.Er Chemical composition
96.35.Fs Mass, size; gravitational fields; rotation; orbits
96.35.Gt Surface features, cratering, and topography
96.35.Hv Neutral atmospheres
96.35.Kx Ionospheres; magnetospheres
96.35.Mz Interiors
96.35.Na Volcanism and tectonics
96.35.Pb Electric and magnetic fields
96.35.Se Interplanetary comparisons
96.40.-z Cosmic rays (for cosmic rays outside the Solar System, see 98.70.S)
96.40.Cd Interplanetary propagation and effects
96.40.De Composition, energy spectra, and interactions
96.40.Fg Energetic solar particles and photons
96.40.Kk Solar modulation and geophysical effects
96.40.Pq Extensive air showers
96.40.Tv Neutrinos and muons
96.40.Vw Cosmic-ray effects in meteorites and terrestrial matter
96.50.-e Interplanetary space (for asteroids, see 96.30.Y)
96.50.Bh Solar electric and magnetic fields (including solar wind fields)
96.50.Ci Solar wind plasma
96.50.Dj Interplanetary gas and dust (including gegenschein and zodiacal light)
96.50.Ek Solar wind interactions with planets, satellites, and comets (for interactions with Earth, see 94.30.V)
96.50.Fm Shock waves
96.50.Gn Comets
96.50.Kr Meteors and meteoroids
96.50.Mt Meteorites, micrometeorites, and tektites
96.60.-j Solar physics
96.60.Bn Diameter, figure, rotation, mass
96.60.Fs Chemical composition
96.60.Hv Electric and magnetic fields
96.60.Jw Solar interior (for solar neutrinos, see 26.65)
96.60.Ly Oscillations and waves; helioseismology
96.60.Mz Photosphere, granulation
96.60.Na Chromosphere and chromosphere-corona transition; spicules
96.60.Pb Corona; coronal loops, streamers, and holes
96.60.Qc Sunspots, faculae, plages
96.60.Rd Flares, bursts, and related phenomena
96.60.Se Prominences
96.60.Tf Solar electromagnetic radiation (for geophysical effects, see 92.60.V, 94.20, and 94.30)
96.60.Vg Particle radiation, solar wind (for geophysical effects, see 94.30.V; see also 96.50.B, 96.50.C, and 96.50.E-in interplanetary space)
96.90.+c Other topics on the solar system
97. Stars
97.10.-q Stellar characteristics and properties (see also 04.40.D Relativistic stars)
97.10.Bt Star formation
97.10.Cv Stellar structure, interiors, evolution, nucleosynthesis, ages
97.10.Ex Stellar atmospheres (photospheres, chromospheres, coronae, magnetospheres); radiative transfer; opacity and line formation
97.10.Fy Circumstellar shells, clouds, and expanding envelopes; circumstellar masers (for interstellar masers, see 98.38.E and 98.58.E)
97.10.Gz Accretion and accretion disks
97.10.Jb Stellar activity
97.10.Kc Stellar rotation
97.10.Ld Magnetic and electric fields; polarization of starlight
97.10.Me Mass loss and stellar winds
97.10.Nf Masses
97.10.Pg Radii and surface features (starspots, etc.)
97.10.Ri Luminosities; magnitudes; effective temperatures, color and spectral classification
97.10.Sj Pulsations, oscillations, and stellar seismology
97.10.Tk Abundances, chemical composition
97.10.Vm Distances, parallaxes
97.10.Wn Proper motions and radial velocities; space motions (see also 95.10.J Astrometry and reference systems)
97.10.Yp Star counts, distribution, and statistics
97.20.-w Normal stars (by class): general or individual
97.20.Ec Main-sequence: early-type stars (O and B)
97.20.Ge Main-sequence: intermediate-type stars (A and F)
97.20.Jg Main-sequence: late-type stars (G, K, and M)
97.20.Li Giant and subgiant stars
97.20.Pm Supergiant stars
97.20.Rp Faint blue stars, white dwarfs, degenerate stars, nuclei of planetary nebulae (for planetary nebulae, see 98.38.L or 98.58.L)
97.20.Tr Population II stars (blue stragglers, horizontal branch, metal poor, etc.)
97.20.Vs Low luminosity stars, subdwarfs, and brown dwarfs
97.20.Wt Population III stars
97.21.+a Pre-main sequence objects, young stellar objects (YSO's) and protostars (T Tauri stars, Orion population, Herbig-Haro objects, Bok globules, bipolar outflows, cometary nebulae, etc.) (see also 98.38.F and 98.58.F Jets, outflows and bipolar flows in the Milky Way and external galaxies)
97.30.-b Variable and peculiar stars (including novae)
97.30.Dg Low-amplitude blue variables (alpha Cygni, beta Cephei, delta Scuti, delta Delphini, delta Canis Majoris, SX Phoenicius, etc.)
97.30.Eh Emission-line stars (Of, Be, Luminous Blue Variables, Wolf-Rayet, etc.)
97.30.Fi Chemically peculiar stars (Ap, Am, etc.)
97.30.Gj Cepheids (delta Cephei, W Virginis)
97.30.Hk Carbon stars, S stars, and related types (C, S, R, and N)
97.30.Jm Long-period variables (Miras) and semiregulars
97.30.Kn RR Lyrae stars, RV Tauri, PV Telescopii and R Coronae Borealis variables
97.30.Nr Flare stars (UV Ceti, RS Canum Venaticorum, FU Orionis stars, etc.)
97.30.Qt Novae, dwarf novae, recurrent novae, and other cataclysmic (eruptive) variables (see also 97.80.G, J Cataclysmic binaries and X-ray binaries)
97.30.Sw Other types of variables
97.60.-s Late stages of stellar evolution (including black holes) (see also 04.40.D Relativistic stars)
97.60.Bw Supernovae
97.60.Gb Pulsars
97.60.Jd Neutron stars
97.60.Lf Black holes (see also 04.70 Physics of black holes, 95.30.S Relativity and gravitation; for galactic black holes, see 98.35.J and 98.62.J; for infall, accretion, and accretion disks, see 98.62.M )
97.60.Sm Other objects believed to be disintegrating or collapsing
97.80.-d Binary and multiple stars
97.80.Af Astrometric and interferometric binaries
97.80.Di Visual binaries
97.80.Fk Spectroscopic binaries; close binaries
97.80.Gm Cataclysmic binaries (novae, dwarf novae, recurrent novae, and nova- like objects); symbiotic stars (see also 97.30.Q Novae)
97.80.Hn Eclipsing binaries
97.80.Jp X-ray binaries (see also 98.70.Q X-ray sources; see also 97.60.G Pulsars)
97.80.Kq Multiple stars
97.82.+k Extrasolar planetary systems
97.90.+j Other topics on stars
98. Stellar Systems; Interstellar Medium; Galactic and Extragalactic Objects and Systems; the Universe
98.10.+z Stellar dynamics and kinematics
98.20.-d Stellar clusters and associations
98.20.Af Associations of stars (OB, T, R) in the Milky Way
98.20.Bg Associations of stars (OB, T, R) in external galaxies
98.20.Di Open clusters in the Milky Way
98.20.Fk Open clusters in external galaxies
98.20.Gm Globular clusters in the Milky Way
98.20.Jp Globular clusters in external galaxies
98.35.-a Characteristics and properties of the Milky Way galaxy
98.35.Ac Origin, formation, evolution, age, and star formation
98.35.Bd Chemical composition and chemical evolution
98.35.Ce Mass and mass distribution
98.35.Df Kinematics, dynamics, and rotation
98.35.Eg Electric and magnetic fields
98.35.Gi Galactic halo
98.35.Hj Spiral arms and galactic disk
98.35.Jk Galactic center (including black hole) and bulge (see also 04.70 Physics of black holes)
98.35.Ln Stellar content and populations; morphology and overall structure
98.35.Mp Infall and accretion
98.35.Nq Galactic winds and fountains
98.38.-j Interstellar medium (ISM) and nebulae in Milky Way
98.38.Am Physical properties (magnetic fields, scintillation scattering, turbulence, electron density, etc.)
98.38.Bn Atomic, molecular, and chemical processes
98.38.Cp Interstellar dust grain
98.38.Dq Molecular clouds, H sub 2 clouds, dense clouds, and dark clouds
98.38.Er Interstellar masers (for circumstellar masers, see 97.10.F )
98.38.Fs Jets, outflows, and bipolar flows (for pre-main sequence objects, see 97.21)
98.38.Gt H I regions, diffuse clouds, and 21-cm lines
98.38.Hv H II regions; emission and reflection nebulae
98.38.Jw Infrared sources
98.38.Kx Intercloud medium (ICM)
98.38.Ly Planetary nebulae (for nuclei of planetary nebulae, see also 97.20.R)
98.38.Mz Supernova remnants
98.52.-b Normal galaxies; extragalactic objects and systems (by type)
98.52.Cf Classification and classification systems
98.52.Eh Elliptical galaxies
98.52.Lp Lenticular (SO) galaxies
98.52.Nr Spiral galaxies
98.52.Sw Irregular and peculiar galaxies
98.52.Wz Dwarf galaxies (elliptical, irregular, and spheroidal)
98.54.-h Quasars; active or peculiar galaxies, objects, and systems
98.54.Aj Quasars
98.54.Cm Active and peculiar galaxies (including BL Lacertae objects, blazers, Seyfert galaxies, Markarian galaxies, active galactic nuclei)
98.54.Ep Starburst galaxies and infrared galaxies
98.54.Gr Radio galaxies
98.56.-p Local group; Magellanic clouds
98.56.Ew Elliptical galaxies
98.56.Ne Spiral galaxies (M31 and M33)
98.56.Si Magellanic clouds and other irregular galaxies
98.56.Wm Dwarf galaxies (elliptical, irregular, and spheroidal)
98.58.-w Interstellar medium (ISM) and nebulae in external galaxies
98.58.Ay Physical properties (magnetic fields, scintillation scattering, turbulence, electron density, etc.)
98.58.Bz Atomic, molecular, and chemical processes
98.58.Ca Interstellar dust grains
98.58.Db Molecular clouds, H sub 2 clouds, dense clouds, and dark clouds
98.58.Ec Interstellar masers (for circumstellar masers, see 97.10.F)
98.58.Fd Jets, outflows, and bipolar flows (for pre-main sequence objects, see 97.21)
98.58.Ge H I regions, diffuse clouds, and 21-cm lines
98.58.Hf H II regions; emission and reflection nebulae
98.58.Jg Infrared sources
98.58.Kh Intercloud medium (ICM)
98.58.Li Planetary nebulae (for nuclei of planetary nebulae, see also 97.20.R) 98.58.Mj Supernova remnants
98.62.-g Characteristics and properties of external galaxies and extragalactic objects (for the Milky Way, see 98.35)
98.62.Ai Origin, formation, evolution, age, and star formation
98.62.Bj Chemical composition and chemical evolution
98.62.Ck Masses and mass distribution
98.62.Dm Kinematics, dynamics, and rotation
98.62.En Electric and magnetic fields
98.62.Gq Galactic halos
98.62.Hr Spiral arms and bars; galactic disks
98.62.Js Galactic nuclei (including black holes) and bulges (see also 04.70 Physics of black holes)
98.62.Lv Stellar content and populations; radii; morphology and overall structure
98.62.Mw Infall, accretion, and accretion disks (see also 04.70 Physics of black holes)
98.62.Nx Jets and bursts; galactic winds and fountains
98.62.Py Distances, redshifts, radial velocities; spatial distribution of galaxies
98.62.Qz Magnitudes and colors; luminosities
98.62.Ra Intergalactic and intracluster matter
98.62.Sb Gravitational lenses and luminous arcs (see also 95.30.S Relativity and gravitation)
98.62.Tc Astrometry; identification
98.65.-r Galaxy groups, clusters, and superclusters; large scale structure of the Universe
98.65.At Interacting galaxies, galaxy pairs, and tuples; galaxy mergers
98.65.Bv Galaxy groups
98.65.Cw Galaxy clusters
98.65.Dx Superclusters; large-scale structure of the Universe (including voids, pancakes, great wall, protogalaxies, and primordial galaxies)
98.70.-f Other sources and radiations (including cosmic rays outside the Solar System) (for cosmic rays in the Solar System, see 96.40; for pulsars, see 97.60.G)
98.70.Dk Radio sources
98.70.Lt IR sources (for IR sources in interstellar medium, see 98.38.J and/or 98.58.J)
98.70.Qy X-ray sources (see also 97.30.Q Novae, dwarf novae, 97.80.J X-ray binaries)
98.70.Rz Gamma-ray sources
98.70.Sa Cosmic-rays (including sources, origin, acceleration, and interactions)
98.70.Vc Background radiations
98.80.-k Cosmology (see also 04 General relativity and gravitation; for origin and evolution of galaxies, see 98.62.A; for elementary particle and nuclear processes, see 95.30.C; for dark matter, see 95.35; for superclusters and large-scale structure of the Universe, see 98.65.D)
98.80.Bp Origin and formation of the Universe
98.80.Cq Particle-theory and field-theory models of the early Universe (including cosmic pancakes, cosmic strings, chaotic phenomena, inflationary universe, etc.)
98.80.Es Observational cosmology
98.80.Ft Origin and formation of the elements
98.80.Hw Mathematical and relativistic aspects of cosmology; quantum cosmology (see also 95.30.S Relativity and gravitation)
98.90.+s Other topics on stellar systems, interstellar medium; galactic and extragalactic objects and systems; the Universe
99.10.+g Errata

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