Quantum Strategies

Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1052 – Published 1 February 1999
David A. Meyer


We consider game theory from the perspective of quantum algorithms. Strategies in classical game theory are either pure (deterministic) or mixed (probabilistic). While not every two-person zero-sum finite game has an equilibrium in the set of pure strategies, von Neumann showed that there is always an equilibrium at which each player follows a mixed strategy. A mixed strategy deviating from the equilibrium strategy cannot increase a player's expected payoff. We show by example, however, that a player who implements a quantum strategy can increase his expected payoff, and explain the relation to efficient quantum algorithms.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.1052

  • Received 4 August 1998
  • Published in the issue dated 1 February 1999

© 1999 The American Physical Society

Authors & Affiliations

David A. Meyer*

  • Project in Geometry and Physics, Department of Mathematics, University of California/San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 and Center for Social Computation/Institute for Physical Sciences, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545

  • *Electronic address: dmeyer@chonji.ucsd.edu


References (Subscription Required)

Authorization Required




Log In



Article Lookup
Paste a citation or DOI

Enter a citation
  1. Enter a citation to look up or terms to search.

    Ex: "PRL 112 068103", "Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 068103", "10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.068103"