Off-Diagonal Long-Range Order, Restricted Gauge Transformations, and Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Conductors

Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2207 – Published 25 March 1996
Murray Peshkin


The electrons in a conductor surrounding an external magnetic field are acted on by a vector potential that cannot be removed by a gauge transformation. Nevertheless, a macroscopic normal conductor can experience no Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect. That is proved by assuming only that a normal conductor lacks off-diagonal long-range order (ODLRO), which means that the electrons lack long-range phase coherence. Then by restricting the Hilbert space to density matrices which lack ODLRO, one can introduce a restricted gauge transformation that removes the interaction of the conductor with the vector potential. Consequently, the AB effect on a beam particle is not shielded by the conductor.


  • Received 28 September 1995
  • Published in the issue dated 25 March 1996

© 1996 The American Physical Society

Authors & Affiliations

Murray Peshkin

  • Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439-4843


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