A simple and robust model of biological evolution of an ecology of interacting species is introduced. The model self-organizes into a critical steady state with intermittent coevolutionary avalanches of all sizes; i.e., it exhibits ‘‘punctuated equilibrium’’ behavior. This collaborative evolution is much faster than non-cooperative scenarios since no large and coordinated, and hence prohibitively unlikely, mutations are involved.
- Received 7 July 1993
- Published in the issue dated 13 December 1993
© 1993 The American Physical Society