Third Law of Black-Hole Dynamics: A Formulation and Proof

Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 397 – Published 28 July 1986
W. Israel


It is shown that no continuous process in which the energy tensor of accreted matter remains bounded and satisfies the weak energy condition in a neighborhood of the apparent horizon can reduce the surface gravity of a black hole to zero within a finite advanced time. This gives a precise expression to the third law of black-hole mechanics.


  • Received 19 May 1986
  • Published in the issue dated 28 July 1986

© 1986 The American Physical Society

Authors & Affiliations

W. Israel*

  • Research Institute for Fundamental Physics, Yukawa Hall, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606, Japan

  • *On leave of absence from Theoretical Physics Institute, Avadh Bhatia Physics Laboratory, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1, Canada.

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