Hidden Variables, Joint Probability, and the Bell Inequalities

Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 291 – Published 1 February 1982
Arthur Fine


It is shown that the following statements about a quantum correlation experiment are mutually equivalent. (1) There is a deterministic hidden-variables model for the experiment. (2) There is a factorizable, stochastic model. (3) There is one joint distribution for all observables of the experiment, returning the experimental probabilities. (4) There are well-defined, compatible joint distributions for all pairs and triples of commuting and noncommuting observables. (5) The Bell inequalities hold.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.48.291

  • Received 28 July 1981
  • Published in the issue dated 1 February 1982

© 1982 The American Physical Society

Authors & Affiliations

Arthur Fine

  • University of Illinois at Chicago Circle, Chicago, Illinois 60680


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