Dynamics and thermodynamics of complex fluids.  I. Development of a general formalism

Phys. Rev. E 56, 6620 – Published 1 December 1997
Miroslav Grmela and Hans Christian Öttinger


We recognize some universal features of macroscopic dynamics describing the approach of a well-established level of description (that is, successfully tested by experimental observations) to equilibrium. The universal features are collected in a general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling (abbreviated as GENERIC). In this paper we formulate a GENERIC, derive properties of its solutions, and discuss their physical interpretation. The relation of the GENERIC with thermodynamics is most clearly displayed in a formulation that uses contact structures. The GENERIC is also discussed in the presence of noise. In applications we either search for new governing equations expressing our insight into a particular complex fluid or take well-established governing equations and cast them into the form of a GENERIC. In the former case we obtain the governing equations as particular realizations of the GENERIC structure; in the latter case we justify the universality of the GENERIC and derive some properties of solutions. Both types of applications are discussed mainly in the following paper [Phys. Rev. E 56, 6633 (1997)].

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.56.6620

  • Received 18 December 1996
  • Revised 6 August 1997
  • Published in the issue dated December 1997

© 1997 The American Physical Society

Authors & Affiliations

Miroslav Grmela

  • École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3A7

Hans Christian Öttinger

  • ETH Zürich, Department of Materials, Institute of Polymers and Swiss FIT Rheocenter, CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland

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