Particle emission rates from a black hole: Massless particles from an uncharged, nonrotating hole

Phys. Rev. D 13, 198 – Published 15 January 1976
Don N. Page


Hawking has predicted that a black hole will emit particles as if it had a temperature proportional to its surface gravity. This paper combines Hawking's quantum formalism with the black-hole perturbation methods of Teukolsky and Press to calculate the emission rate for the known massless particles. Numerical results indicate that a hole of mass M1017 g should emit a total power output of 2×10-4c6G-2M-2, of which 81% is in neutrinos, 17% is in photons, and 2% is in gravitons. These rates plus an estimate for the emission rates of massive particles from smaller holes allow one to infer that a primordial black hole will have decayed away within the present age of the universe if and only if its initial mass was M<(5±1)×1014 g.


  • Received 18 August 1975
  • Published in the issue dated 15 January 1976

© 1976 The American Physical Society

Authors & Affiliations

Don N. Page

  • California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125

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