Multipole expansion for relativistic Coulomb excitation

Phys. Rev. C 65, 024605 – Published 15 January 2002
H. Esbensen and C. A. Bertulani


We derive a general expression for the multipole expansion of the electromagnetic interaction in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, which can be employed in higher-order dynamical calculations of Coulomb excitation. The interaction has diagonal as well as off-diagonal multipole components, associated with the intrinsic and relative coordinates of projectile and target. A simple truncation in the off-diagonal components gives excellent results in first-order perturbation theory for distant collisions and for beam energies up to 200 MeV/nucleon.


  • Received 14 September 2001
  • Published 15 January 2002

© 2002 The American Physical Society

Authors & Affiliations

H. Esbensen

  • Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439

C. A. Bertulani

  • Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000

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