Femtometer toroidal structures in nuclei

Phys. Rev. C 54, 646 – Published 1 August 1996
J. L. Forest, V. R. Pandharipande, Steven C. Pieper, R. B. Wiringa, R. Schiavilla, and A. Arriaga


The two-nucleon density distributions in states with isospin T=0, spin S=1, and projection MS=0 and ±1 are studied in H2, He3,4, Li6,7, and O16. The equidensity surfaces for MS=0 distributions are found to be toroidal in shape, while those of MS=±1 have dumbbell shapes at large density. The dumbbell shapes are generated by rotating tori. The toroidal shapes indicate that the tensor correlations have near maximal strength at r<2 fm in all these nuclei. They provide new insights and simple explanations of the structure and electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron, the quasideuteron model, and the dp, dd, and αd L=2 (D-wave) components in He3, He4, and Li6. The toroidal distribution has a maximum-density diameter of ∼1 fm and a half-maximum density thickness of ∼0.9 fm. Many realistic models of nuclear forces predict these values, which are supported by the observed electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron, and also predicted by classical Skyrme effective Lagrangians, related to QCD in the limit of infinite colors. Due to the rather small size of this structure, it could have a revealing relation to certain aspects of QCD. Experiments to probe this structure and its effects in nuclei are suggested. Pair distribution functions in other T,S channels are also discussed; those in T,S=1,1 have anisotropies expected from one-pion-exchange interactions. The tensor correlations in T,S=0,1 states are found to deplete the number of T,S=1,0 pairs in nuclei and cause a reduction in nuclear binding energies via many-body effects. © 1996 The American Physical Society.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.54.646

  • Received 19 March 1996
  • Published in the issue dated August 1996

© 1996 The American Physical Society

Authors & Affiliations

J. L. Forest and V. R. Pandharipande

  • Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801

Steven C. Pieper and R. B. Wiringa

  • Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439

R. Schiavilla

  • CEBAF Theory Group, Newport News, Virginia 23606,
  • Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529

A. Arriaga

  • Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Gama Pinto 2, 1699 Lisboa, Portugal

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