A method is developed for demonstrating how solitons with some internal periodic motion may emerge as elementary excitations in the statistical mechanics of field systems. The procedure is demonstrated in the context of complex scalar fields which can, for appropriate choices of the Lagrangian, yield charge-carrying solitons with such internal motion. The derivation uses the techniques of the steepest-descent method for functional integrals. It is shown that, despite the constraint of some fixed total charge, a gaslike excitation of such charged solitons does emerge.
- Received 18 February 1981
- Revised 30 June 1981
- Published in the issue dated 1 February 1982
© 1982 The American Physical Society