Irreversibility and Generalized Noise

Phys. Rev. 83, 34 – Published 1 July 1951
Herbert B. Callen and Theodore A. Welton


A relation is obtained between the generalized resistance and the fluctuations of the generalized forces in linear dissipative systems. This relation forms the extension of the Nyquist relation for the voltage fluctuations in electrical impedances. The general formalism is illustrated by applications to several particular types of systems, including Brownian motion, electric field fluctuations in the vacuum, and pressure fluctuations in a gas.


  • Received 11 January 1951
  • Published in the issue dated July 1951

© 1951 The American Physical Society

Authors & Affiliations

Herbert B. Callen and Theodore A. Welton*

  • Randal Morgan Laboratory of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

  • *Now at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

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