Theory of the Hydrogen Maser

Phys. Rev. 126, 603 – Published 15 April 1962
Daniel Kleppner, H. Mark Goldenberg, and Norman F. Ramsey


The behavior of the atomic hydrogen maser is analyzed for both stationary and transient operation. An expression for noise in the signal from the maser oscillator is derived by applying the previously developed theory of Shimoda, Wang, and Townes. A variety of relaxation phenomena are analyzed, including effects of chemical reaction with the surface and magnetic field inhomogeneities. Several mechanisms leading to frequency shifts in the maser are also analyzed, including cavity pulling and the Doppler effect.


  • Received 15 December 1961
  • Published in the issue dated April 1962

© 1962 The American Physical Society

Authors & Affiliations

Daniel Kleppner, H. Mark Goldenberg, and Norman F. Ramsey

  • Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

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