Meissner Effect and Gauge Invariance

Phys. Rev. 111, 817 – Published 1 August 1958
G. Rickayzen


It is shown from a manifestly gauge-invariant Hamiltonian that the Meissner effect can follow from an energy-gap model of superconductivity. The superconductor is described by Fröhlich's Hamiltonian and the superconducting properties at the absolute zero are determined by a method due to Bogoliubov. In the weak-coupling limit (TcΘD) there is an energy gap which leads to a Meissner effect. The method of Bogoliubov is extended to apply at general temperatures and the current is calculated in the weak-coupling limit. The results are in essential agreement with those of Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer.


  • Received 7 April 1958
  • Published in the issue dated August 1958

© 1958 The American Physical Society

Authors & Affiliations

G. Rickayzen

  • Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

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